The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

PTHrP expression in chick sternal chondrocytes is regulated by TGF-beta through Smad-mediated signaling.

PTHrP regulates the rate of chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral bone formation. The expression of PTHrP and its regulation by TGF-beta, BMP-2, and PTHrP was examined in upper sternal chondrocytes following 1, 3, and 5 days of continuous treatment. While TGF-beta stimulated the expression of PTHrP (5-fold), PTHrP caused a slight inhibition, and BMP-2 markedly inhibited PTHrP mRNA expression. The effect of these factors on PTHrP expression was not simply related to the maturational state of the cells, since BMP-2 increased, while both PTHrP and TGF-beta decreased the expression of type X collagen. TGF-beta isoforms 1, 2, and 3 all stimulated PTHrP expression. Signaling events involved in the induction of PTHrP by TGF-beta were further evaluated in a PTHrP-promoter CAT construct. The effect of TGF-beta, BMP-2, and PTHrP on the PTHrP-promoter paralleled their effects on mRNA expression, with TGF-beta significantly increasing CAT activity, BMP-2 decreasing CAT activity, and PTHrP having a minimal effect. Co-transfection of the TGF-beta signaling molecule, Smad 3, mimicked the effect of TGF-beta (induction of PTHrP promoter), while dominant negative Smad 3 inhibited the induction of the PTHrP promoter by TGF-beta. Furthermore, infection with a Smad 3-expressing retrovirus mimicked the effects of exogenously added TGF-beta, and induced PTHrP mRNA expression in the infected chondrocyte culture. In contrast, a dominant negative Smad 3 completely inhibited PTHrP promoter stimulation by TGF-beta, but only partially blocked the effect of TGF-beta on PTHrP mRNA synthesis. These findings demonstrate that PTHrP is expressed in chondrocytes undergoing endochondral ossification, and show regulation, at least in part, by TGF-beta through Smad mediated signaling events.[1]


  1. PTHrP expression in chick sternal chondrocytes is regulated by TGF-beta through Smad-mediated signaling. Pateder, D.B., Ferguson, C.M., Ionescu, A.M., Schwarz, E.M., Rosier, R.N., Puzas, J.E., O'Keefe, R.J. J. Cell. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities