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Gene Review

SMAD1  -  mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1

Gallus gallus

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High impact information on SMAD1


Biological context of SMAD1

  • Overall, Aza-treated ACs represent a novel model for the study of mechanisms that regulate maturational potential of articular cartilage, with the data suggesting that maturation of these cells may be due to up-regulation of Smad1 and 5 coupled with a Smurf2-dependent degradation of Smad2 and 3 and loss of TGF-beta signaling [5].
  • Moreover, TGFbeta1-evoked increases in phosphorylation of SMAD2 were reduced by manumycin-A, suggesting that Ras-dependent transduction cascades activated by TGFbeta1 feed back onto SMAD signaling [6].

Regulatory relationships of SMAD1


Other interactions of SMAD1

  • These findings demonstrate that PTHrP is expressed in chondrocytes undergoing endochondral ossification, and show regulation, at least in part, by TGF-beta through Smad mediated signaling events [7].
  • Aza-treated ACs displayed less Smad2 and 3 and increased Smad1, 5, and Smurf2 protein and showed a loss of TGF-beta signaling on the P3TP-luciferase reporter [5].


  1. SMAD-mediated modulation of YY1 activity regulates the BMP response and cardiac-specific expression of a GATA4/5/6-dependent chick Nkx2.5 enhancer. Lee, K.H., Evans, S., Ruan, T.Y., Lassar, A.B. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) inhibits Runx2 expression through the PKA signaling pathway. Li, T.F., Dong, Y., Ionescu, A.M., Rosier, R.N., Zuscik, M.J., Schwarz, E.M., O'Keefe, R.J., Drissi, H. Exp. Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Endogenous patterns of BMP signaling during early chick development. Faure, S., de Santa Barbara, P., Roberts, D.J., Whitman, M. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Retinoic acid stimulates chondrocyte differentiation and enhances bone morphogenetic protein effects through induction of Smad1 and Smad5. Li, X., Schwarz, E.M., Zuscik, M.J., Rosier, R.N., Ionescu, A.M., Puzas, J.E., Drissi, H., Sheu, T.J., O'Keefe, R.J. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. 5-azacytidine alters TGF-beta and BMP signaling and induces maturation in articular chondrocytes. Zuscik, M.J., Baden, J.F., Wu, Q., Sheu, T.J., Schwarz, E.M., Drissi, H., O'Keefe, R.J., Puzas, J.E., Rosier, R.N. J. Cell. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Ras is a mediator of TGFbeta1 signaling in developing chick ciliary ganglion neurons. Lhuillier, L., Dryer, S.E. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. PTHrP expression in chick sternal chondrocytes is regulated by TGF-beta through Smad-mediated signaling. Pateder, D.B., Ferguson, C.M., Ionescu, A.M., Schwarz, E.M., Rosier, R.N., Puzas, J.E., O'Keefe, R.J. J. Cell. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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