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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pharmacodynamics of gemifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model of infection.

The pharmacodynamics of gemifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae were investigated in a dilutional pharmacodynamic model of infection. Dose fractionation was used to simulate concentrations of gemifloxacin in human serum associated with 640 mg every 48 h (one dose), 320 mg every 24 h (two doses), and 160 mg every 12 h (four doses). Five strains of S. pneumoniae for which MICs were 0.016, 0.06, 0.1, 0.16, and 0.24 mg/liter were used to assess the antibacterial effect of gemifloxacin. An inoculum of 10(7) to 10(8) CFU/ml was used, and each experiment was performed at least in triplicate. The pharmacodynamic parameters (area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]/MIC, maximum concentration of drug in serum [C(max)]/MIC, and the time that the serum drug concentration remains higher than the MIC [T > MIC]) were related to antibacterial effect as measured by the area under the bacterial-kill curve from 0 to 48 h (AUBKC(48)) using an inhibitory sigmoid E(max) model. Weighted least-squares regression was used to predict the effect of the pharmacodynamic parameters on AUBKC(48), and Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to predict the effect of the three pharmacodynamic parameters on the time needed to kill 99.9% of the starting inoculum (T99.9). There was a clear relationship between strain susceptibility and clearance from the model. The simulations (160 mg every 12 h) were associated with slower initial clearance than were the other simulations; in contrast, bacterial regrowth occurred with the 640-mg simulation when MICs were > or =0.1 mg/liter. The percentage coefficient of variance was 19% for AUBKC(48), and the inhibitory sigmoid E(max) model best fit the relationship between AUBKC(48) and AUC/MIC. C(max)/MIC and T > MIC fit less well. The maximum response occurred at an AUC/MIC of >300 to 400. In weighted least-squares regression analysis, there was no evidence that C(max)/MIC was predictive of AUBKC(48), but both AUC/MIC and T > MIC were. A repeat analysis using only data for which the T > MIC was >75% and for which hence regrowth was minimized indicated that AUC/MIC alone was predictive of AUBKC(48). Initial univariate analysis indicated that all three pharmacodynamic parameters were predictive of T99.9, but in the multivariate model only C(max)/MIC reached significance. These data indicate that gemifloxacin is an effective antipneumococcal agent and that AUC/MIC is the best predictor of antibacterial effect as measured by AUBKC(48). However, C(max)/MIC is the best predictor of speed of kill, as measured by T99. 9. T > MIC also has a role in determining AUBKC(48), especially when the dose spacing is considerable. Once-daily dosing seems most suitable for gemifloxacin.[1]


  1. Pharmacodynamics of gemifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model of infection. MacGowan, A.P., Rogers, C.A., Holt, H.A., Wootton, M., Bowker, K.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
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