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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoamide dehydrogenase is encoded by Rv0462 and not by the lpdA or lpdB genes.

The gene encoding dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv0462, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein purified to homogeneity. The 49 kDa polypeptide forms a homodimer containing one tightly bound molecule of FAD/monomer. The results of steady-state kinetic analyses using several reduced pyridine nucleotide analogs and a variety of electron acceptors, and the ability of the enzyme to catalyze the transhydrogenation of NADH and thio-NAD(+) in the absence of D,L-lipoamide, demonstrated that the enzyme uses a ping-pong kinetic mechanism. Primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects on V and V/K at pH 7.5 using NADH deuterated at the C(4)-proS position of the nicotinamide ring are small [(D)(V/K)(NADH) = 1.12 +/- 0.15, (D)V(app) = 1.05 +/- 0.07] when D,L-lipoamide is the oxidant but large and equivalent [(D)(V/K)(NADH) = (D)V = 2.95 +/- 0.03] when 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone is the oxidant. Solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effects at pH 5.8, using APADH as the reductant, are inverse with (D)(V/K)(APADH) = 0.73 +/- 0.03, (D)(V/K)(Lip(S))2 = 0.77 +/- 0.03, and (D)V(app) = 0.77 +/- 0.01. Solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effects with 4,4-dithiopyridine (DTP), the 4-thiopyridone product of which requires no protonation, are also inverse with (D)(V/K)(APADH) = 0.75 +/- 0.06, (D)(V/K)(DTP) = 0.71 +/- 0.02, and (D)V(app) = 0.56 +/- 0.15. All proton inventories were linear, indicating that a single proton is being transferred in the solvent isotopically sensitive step. Taken together, these results suggest that (1) the reductive half-reaction (hydride transfer from NADH to FAD) is rate limiting when a quinone is the oxidant, and (2) deprotonation of enzymic thiols, most likely Cys(46) and Cys(41), limits the reductive and oxidative half-reactions, respectively, when D,L-lipoamide is the oxidant.[1]


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