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Chemical Compound Review

Nicobion     pyridine-3-carboxamide

Synonyms: Papulex, Enduramide, niacinamide, nicotinamide, vitamin PP, ...
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Disease relevance of nicotinamide


Psychiatry related information on nicotinamide

  • A distinct subpopulation of striatal aspiny neurons, containing the enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase, is preserved in the caudate nucleus in Huntington's disease [6].
  • Nevertheless, at 80 days of age, the exploratory behavior in the elevated-plus maze and the learning and memory behavior in the eight-arm maze revealed that early vitamin B deprivation is associated with persistent functional disabilities, possibly resulting from the ensuing neurotoxic effects of homocysteine [7].
  • However, the data do not exclude the possibility of a less strong, but potentially meaningful, risk reduction in this cohort, or a major clinical effect of nicotinamide in individuals with less risk of progression to IDDM than studied here [8].
  • Further knowledge acquired in regards to the ability of nicotinamide to foster cellular survival and regulate cellular lifespan should significantly promote the development of therapies against a host of disorders, such as aging, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and cancer [9].
  • The effects of cold exposure (physical stress), having to perform arithmetic calculations (mental stress), and dark exposure (emotional stress) on nicotinamide metabolism were investigated [10].

High impact information on nicotinamide

  • Discoveries of nicotinamide riboside as a nutrient and conserved NRK genes establish a Preiss-Handler independent route to NAD+ in fungi and humans [11].
  • Each subunit is an oxidoreductase enzyme complete with a nicotinamide co-factor in its active site [12].
  • The complex, in combination with mutagenesis and kinetic data, provides a structural basis for understanding the mechanism of IMPDH activity and indicates that MPA inhibits IMPDH by acting as a replacement for the nicotinamide portion of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor and a catalytic water molecule [13].
  • Here we show that increased expression of PNC1 (pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase 1), which encodes an enzyme that deaminates nicotinamide, is both necessary and sufficient for lifespan extension by calorie restriction and low-intensity stress [14].
  • This extension was not observed in strains mutant for SIR2 (which encodes the silencing protein Sir2p) or NPT1 (a gene in a pathway in the synthesis of NAD, the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of nicotinamide


Biological context of nicotinamide


Anatomical context of nicotinamide


Associations of nicotinamide with other chemical compounds


Gene context of nicotinamide


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of nicotinamide


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  34. Manganese superoxide dismutase and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide diaphorase colocalize in the rat gut. Fang, S., Christensen, J. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
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