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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Glucocorticoid receptor domain requirements for chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter in different nucleoprotein contexts.

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) contains several activation domains, tau1 (AF-1), tau2, and AF-2, which were initially defined using transiently transfected reporter constructs. Using domain mutations in the context of full-length GR, this study defines those domains required for activation of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter in two distinct nucleoprotein configurations. A transiently transfected MMTV template with a disorganized, accessible chromatin structure was largely dependent on the AF-2 domain for activation. In contrast, activation of an MMTV template in organized, replicated chromatin requires both domains but has a relatively larger dependence on the tau1 domain. Domain requirements for GR-induced chromatin remodeling of the latter template were also investigated. Mutation of the AF-2 helix 12 domain partially inhibits the induction of nuclease hypersensitivity, but the inhibition was relieved in the absence of tau1, suggesting the occurrence of an important interaction between the two domains. Further mutational analysis indicates that GR-induced chromatin remodeling requires the ligand-binding domain in the region of helix 3. Our study shows that the GR activation surfaces required for transcriptional modulation of a target promoter were determined in part by its chromatin structure. Within a particular cellular environment the GR appears to possess a significant degree of versatility in the mechanism by which it activates a target promoter.[1]


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