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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The osmotic gradient in kidney medulla: a retold story.

This article is an attempt to simplify lecturing about the osmotic gradient in the kidney medulla. In the model presented, the kidneys are described as a limited space with a positive interstitial hydrostatic pressure. Traffic of water, sodium, and urea is described in levels (or horizons) of different osmolarity, governed by osmotic forces and positive interstitial pressure. In this way, actions of the countercurrent multiplier in nephron tubules and of the countercurrent exchanger in vasa recta are integrated in each horizon. We hope that this approach can help students to better accept conventional presentations in their textbooks.[1]


  1. The osmotic gradient in kidney medulla: a retold story. Kurbel, S., Dodig, K., Radić, R. Advances in physiology education. (2002) [Pubmed]
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