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MeSH Review

Osmolar Concentration

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Disease relevance of Osmolar Concentration


Psychiatry related information on Osmolar Concentration


High impact information on Osmolar Concentration

  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are five MAPK pathways involved in mating, cell wall remodelling, nutrient deprivation, and responses to stress stimuli such as osmolarity changes [11].
  • When four of the patients were later restudied while receiving maintenance hydrocortisone treatment, the relation between plasma vasopressin and osmolality was normal [12].
  • Furthermore, topA mutations can mimic an increase in osmolarity, facilitating proU expression even in media of low osmolarity in which it is not normally expressed [13].
  • An increase in extracellular osmolarity increases in vivo DNA supercoiling, and the expression of proU is highly sensitive to these changes [13].
  • These structures form below 40 degrees C at moderate ionic strength and neutral pH and behave like hairpin duplexes in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Osmolar Concentration


Biological context of Osmolar Concentration


Anatomical context of Osmolar Concentration

  • In three patients given lithium carbonate (900 mg daily) the serum sodium concentration, urine osmolality and urine volume were unchanged; since two patients had adverse central-nervous-system symptoms during lithium therapy, further study of this agent was abandoned [25].
  • At physiological ionic strength and pH, nonphosphorylated smooth muscle and non-muscle myosin filaments are disassembled by stoichiometric levels of MgATP, forming species having sedimentation coefficients of approximately 11S (range 10-12S; myosin monomers in high salt sediment at 6S) [26].
  • Many environmental stresses (such as shifts in temperature or osmolarity) provoke transient depolarization of the actin cytoskeleton, during which bud construction is delayed while cells adapt to environmental conditions [27].
  • Calcium uptake into human intestinal brush border membrane vesicles represented uptake into intravesicular space as evidenced by studies of osmolality, temperature dependence, calcium ionophore A23187-induced efflux and influx, and lanthanum displacement [28].
  • On day 3, mannitol solutions of increasing osmolality 370, 520, and 700 mosmol X kg-1 were infused into the duodenum at 0.2 ml X min-1 [29].

Associations of Osmolar Concentration with chemical compounds

  • A simple and direct way to assess whether tonicity is normal is to calculate the effective osmolality from the concentrations of sodium and glucose in serum [30].
  • Moreover, during water loading and infusion of hypertonic saline, the plasma level of vasopressin was higher at any given plasma osmolality in the test patients than in the controls, indicating a downward resetting of the osmostat [1].
  • At that time, the urinary sodium level and the osmolality averaged 68 mmol per liter and 501 mOsm per kilogram, suggesting inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone [31].
  • What fraction of total RNA synthesized is 5S RNA is strongly affected by DNA concentration, ionic strength and MgCl2 concentration [32].
  • The tyrosine kinase Pyk2 was activated by tumor necrosis factor alpha, by ultraviolet irradiation, and by changes in osmolarity [33].

Gene context of Osmolar Concentration

  • Both HOG1 and p38 are tyrosine phosphorylated after extracellular changes in osmolarity [34].
  • Mutants that were not able to activate PBS2 MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK; Pbs2p) at high osmolarity were characterized [35].
  • The MAPKKK Ste11p functions in three Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAPK cascades [the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG), pheromone response, and pseudohyphal/invasive growth pathways], but its activation in response to high osmolarity stimulates only the HOG pathway [36].
  • V2R-deficient hemizygous male pups showed a decrease in basal urine osmolalities and were unable to concentrate their urine [37].
  • These results are also discussed with regard to the mechanism underlying regulation of the proV promoter in response to the medium osmolarity [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Osmolar Concentration


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  3. Absence of nucleosomes in a histone-containing nucleoprotein complex obtained by dissociation of purified SV40 virions. Moyne, G., Harper, F., Saragosti, S., Yaniv, M. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Suggested mechanism for the selective excretion of glucosylated albumin. The effects of diabetes mellitus and aging on this process and the origins of diabetic microalbuminuria. Kowluru, A., Kowluru, R., Bitensky, M.W., Corwin, E.J., Solomon, S.S., Johnson, J.D. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Sustained effect of glucose-insulin-potassium on myocardial performance during regional ischemia. Role of free fatty acid and osmolality. Ahmed, S.S., Lee, C.H., Oldewurtel, H.A., Regan, T.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
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  9. Influence of endogenous and exogenous oestrogens on posterior pituitary secretion in women. Williams, T.D., Edwards, A., Fairhall, K.M., Robinson, I.C., McGarrick, G.M., Lightman, S.L. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. In vitro biocompatibility of bicarbonate-based peritoneal dialysis solutions. Topley, N. Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase: conservation of a three-kinase module from yeast to human. Widmann, C., Gibson, S., Jarpe, M.B., Johnson, G.L. Physiol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Hyponatremia and inappropriate secretion of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) in patients with hypopituitarism. Oelkers, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. A physiological role for DNA supercoiling in the osmotic regulation of gene expression in S. typhimurium and E. coli. Higgins, C.F., Dorman, C.J., Stirling, D.A., Waddell, L., Booth, I.R., May, G., Bremer, E. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Telomeric DNA oligonucleotides form novel intramolecular structures containing guanine-guanine base pairs. Henderson, E., Hardin, C.C., Walk, S.K., Tinoco, I., Blackburn, E.H. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. A study of the intrarenal recycling of urea in the rat with chronic experimental pyelonephritis. Gilbert, R.M., Weber, H., Turchin, L., Fine, L.G., Bourgoignie, J.J., Bricker, N.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Is vasopressin involved in the pathogenesis of malignant desoxycorticosterone hypertension in rats? Möhring, J., Möhring, B., Petri, M., Haack, D. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Plasma renin and angiotensin II in acute renal failure. Mitch, W.E., Walker, W.G. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Superstructure of linear duplex DNA. Vollenweider, H.J., Koller, T., Parello, J., Sogo, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Sendai virus-induced hemolysis: reduction in heterogeneity of erythrocyte lipid bilayer fluidity. Lyles, D.S., Landsberger, F.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Brattleboro rat adrenal contains vasopressin. Nussey, S.S., Ang, V.T., Jenkins, J.S., Chowdrey, H.S., Bisset, G.W. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Potent aquaretic agent. A novel nonpeptide selective vasopressin 2 antagonist (OPC-31260) in men. Ohnishi, A., Orita, Y., Okahara, R., Fujihara, H., Inoue, T., Yamamura, Y., Yabuuchi, Y., Tanaka, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Obstructive nephropathy in the rat: possible roles for the renin-angiotensin system, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes in postobstructive renal function. Yarger, W.E., Schocken, D.D., Harris, R.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Isovolumetric regulation of isolated S2 proximal tubules in anisotonic media. Lohr, J.W., Grantham, J.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Interaction of free and synaptic vesicle-bound synapsin I with F-actin. Benfenati, F., Valtorta, F., Chieregatti, E., Greengard, P. Neuron (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Superiority of demeclocycline over lithium in the treatment of chronic syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Forrest, J.N., Cox, M., Hong, C., Morrison, G., Bia, M., Singer, I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Light-chain phosphorylation controls the conformation of vertebrate non-muscle and smooth muscle myosin molecules. Craig, R., Smith, R., Kendrick-Jones, J. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. A role for the Pkc1p/Mpk1p kinase cascade in the morphogenesis checkpoint. Harrison, J.C., Bardes, E.S., Ohya, Y., Lew, D.J. Nat. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Characterization of calcium uptake by brush border membrane vesicles of human small intestine. Ghishan, F.K., Arab, N., Nylander, W. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Duodenal volume and osmoreceptors in the stimulation of human pancreatic secretion. Dooley, C.P., Valenzuela, J.E. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Current concepts. Serum osmolality. Uses and limitations. Gennari, F.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Hyponatremia, convulsions, respiratory arrest, and permanent brain damage after elective surgery in healthy women. Arieff, A.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. A nuclear extract of Xenopus laevis oocytes that accurately transcribes 5S RNA genes. Birkenmeier, E.H., Brown, D.D., Jordan, E. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  33. Activation of Pyk2 by stress signals and coupling with JNK signaling pathway. Tokiwa, G., Dikic, I., Lev, S., Schlessinger, J. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. A MAP kinase targeted by endotoxin and hyperosmolarity in mammalian cells. Han, J., Lee, J.D., Bibbs, L., Ulevitch, R.J. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Activation of yeast PBS2 MAPKK by MAPKKKs or by binding of an SH3-containing osmosensor. Maeda, T., Takekawa, M., Saito, H. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. The Hog1 MAPK prevents cross talk between the HOG and pheromone response MAPK pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. O'Rourke, S.M., Herskowitz, I. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Generation and phenotype of mice harboring a nonsense mutation in the V2 vasopressin receptor gene. Yun, J., Schöneberg, T., Liu, J., Schulz, A., Ecelbarger, C.A., Promeneur, D., Nielsen, S., Sheng, H., Grinberg, A., Deng, C., Wess, J. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. The Escherichia coli nucleoid protein H-NS functions directly as a transcriptional repressor. Ueguchi, C., Mizuno, T. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Active sodium-urea counter-transport is inducible in the basolateral membrane of rat renal initial inner medullary collecting ducts. Kato, A., Sands, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. Hemodialysis increases apparent diffusion coefficient of brain water in nephrectomized rats measured by isotropic diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Galons, J.P., Trouard, T., Gmitro, A.F., Lien, Y.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  41. Selective response of human airway epithelia to luminal but not serosal solution hypertonicity. Possible role for proximal airway epithelia as an osmolality transducer. Willumsen, N.J., Davis, C.W., Boucher, R.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  42. Osmotic effects of polyethylene glycol. Schiller, L.R., Emmett, M., Santa Ana, C.A., Fordtran, J.S. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  43. High osmolarity extends life span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a mechanism related to calorie restriction. Kaeberlein, M., Andalis, A.A., Fink, G.R., Guarente, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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