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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of zidovudine in preterm infants.

OBJECTIVE: To determine zidovudine pharmacokinetics and tolerance in premature human human immunodeficiency virus-exposed infants. STUDY DESIGN: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 331 was a multicentered prospective, open-label study of the use of zidovudine in premature infants. Thirty-eight infants <35 weeks' gestational age (GA) were studied while receiving zidovudine 1.5 mg/kg every 12 hours until 2 weeks of age, then 2.0 mg/kg every 8 hours until 6 weeks of age. Population pharmacokinetics were evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks' postnatal age; zidovudine doses were adjusted to maintain troughs <3 microM. RESULTS: Zidovudine clearance was lower than reported in term infants at similar postnatal ages. Nine premature infants required dose reduction because of high levels (7/19 <30 weeks' and 2/19 >/=30 weeks' GA). Postnatal age, GA, serum creatinine, and furosemide use independently predicted zidovudine clearance. Zidovudine was generally well tolerated in this high-risk population. CONCLUSIONS: Zidovudine clearance is greatly reduced in premature infants. We recommend the following zidovudine dosing schedule in this population: 1.5 mg/kg (intravenous) or 2.0 mg/kg (oral) every 12 hours increased to every 8 hours at 2 weeks of age (>/=30 weeks' GA) or at 4 weeks (<30 weeks' GA).[1]


  1. Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of zidovudine in preterm infants. Capparelli, E.V., Mirochnick, M., Dankner, W.M., Blanchard, S., Mofenson, L., McSherry, G.D., Gay, H., Ciupak, G., Smith, B., Connor, J.D. J. Pediatr. (2003) [Pubmed]
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