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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Clinical Trials

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Disease relevance of Clinical Trials


Psychiatry related information on Clinical Trials


High impact information on Clinical Trials


Chemical compound and disease context of Clinical Trials


Biological context of Clinical Trials


Anatomical context of Clinical Trials


Associations of Clinical Trials with chemical compounds


Gene context of Clinical Trials

  • Several clinical trials using a chimeric anti-TNF alpha antibody have shown marked clinical benefit, verifying the hypothesis that TNF alpha is of major importance in rheumatoid arthritis [12].
  • Clinical trials are now testing whether mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition is useful in treating PTEN-null cancers [35].
  • Clinical trials with various VEGF inhibitors in a variety of malignancies are ongoing [36].
  • IMPLICATIONS: Enhanced drug accumulation in nonmalignant tissues after Pgp blockade should be carefully considered in future clinical trials of Pgp modulation [37].
  • IMPLICATIONS: Clinical trials with anti-EGF receptor MAbs are being conducted, and trials with anti-EGF receptor MAbs combined with doxorubicin are planned [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Clinical Trials


  1. Anti-TNF alpha therapy of rheumatoid arthritis: what have we learned? Feldmann, M., Maini, R.N. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Failure of cytarabine in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 243 Team. Hall, C.D., Dafni, U., Simpson, D., Clifford, D., Wetherill, P.E., Cohen, B., McArthur, J., Hollander, H., Yainnoutsos, C., Major, E., Millar, L., Timpone, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. A randomized controlled trial of a reduced daily dose of zidovudine in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Fischl, M.A., Parker, C.B., Pettinelli, C., Wulfsohn, M., Hirsch, M.S., Collier, A.C., Antoniskis, D., Ho, M., Richman, D.D., Fuchs, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. A controlled trial comparing foscarnet with vidarabine for acyclovir-resistant mucocutaneous herpes simplex in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Safrin, S., Crumpacker, C., Chatis, P., Davis, R., Hafner, R., Rush, J., Kessler, H.A., Landry, B., Mills, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease. Malinow, M.R., Duell, P.B., Hess, D.L., Anderson, P.H., Kruger, W.D., Phillipson, B.E., Gluckman, R.A., Block, P.C., Upson, B.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Tobacco dependence and the nicotine patch. Clinical guidelines for effective use. Fiore, M.C., Jorenby, D.E., Baker, T.B., Kenford, S.L. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. A placebo-controlled 18-month trial of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance treatment in recently manic or hypomanic patients with bipolar I disorder. Bowden, C.L., Calabrese, J.R., Sachs, G., Yatham, L.N., Asghar, S.A., Hompland, M., Montgomery, P., Earl, N., Smoot, T.M., DeVeaugh-Geiss, J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Trophic effects of purines in neurons and glial cells. Rathbone, M.P., Middlemiss, P.J., Gysbers, J.W., Andrew, C., Herman, M.A., Reed, J.K., Ciccarelli, R., Di Iorio, P., Caciagli, F. Prog. Neurobiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Preventing non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Knowler, W.C., Narayan, K.M., Hanson, R.L., Nelson, R.G., Bennett, P.H., Tuomilehto, J., Scherstén, B., Pettitt, D.J. Diabetes (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Risk factor modification: rationale for management of dyslipidemia. Gotto, A.M. Am. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Tolerance to islet autoantigens in type 1 diabetes. Bach, J.F., Chatenoud, L. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis. Feldmann, M., Brennan, F.M., Maini, R.N. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Multiple myeloma: what's new. Durie, B.G. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Risk factors for perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in women treated with zidovudine. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 185 Team. Mofenson, L.M., Lambert, J.S., Stiehm, E.R., Bethel, J., Meyer, W.A., Whitehouse, J., Moye, J., Reichelderfer, P., Harris, D.R., Fowler, M.G., Mathieson, B.J., Nemo, G.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. A controlled trial comparing continued zidovudine with didanosine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. The NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Kahn, J.O., Lagakos, S.W., Richman, D.D., Cross, A., Pettinelli, C., Liou, S.H., Brown, M., Volberding, P.A., Crumpacker, C.S., Beall, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of amphotericin B with fluconazole in the treatment of acute AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. The NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Saag, M.S., Powderly, W.G., Cloud, G.A., Robinson, P., Grieco, M.H., Sharkey, P.K., Thompson, S.E., Sugar, A.M., Tuazon, C.U., Fisher, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team. Hammer, S.M., Squires, K.E., Hughes, M.D., Grimes, J.M., Demeter, L.M., Currier, J.S., Eron, J.J., Feinberg, J.E., Balfour, H.H., Deyton, L.R., Chodakewitz, J.A., Fischl, M.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Atovaquone compared with dapsone for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with HIV infection who cannot tolerate trimethoprim, sulfonamides, or both. Community Program for Clinical Research on AIDS and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. El-Sadr, W.M., Murphy, R.L., Yurik, T.M., Luskin-Hawk, R., Cheung, T.W., Balfour, H.H., Eng, R., Hooton, T.M., Kerkering, T.M., Schutz, M., van der Horst, C., Hafner, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Retinoic acid normalizes the increased gene transcription rate of TGF-alpha and EGFR in head and neck cancer cell lines. Rubin Grandis, J., Zeng, Q., Tweardy, D.J. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. A survey of zidovudine use in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sperling, R.S., Stratton, P., O'Sullivan, M.J., Boyer, P., Watts, D.H., Lambert, J.S., Hammill, H., Livingston, E.G., Gloeb, D.J., Minkoff, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. A comparison of immediate with deferred zidovudine therapy for asymptomatic HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell counts of 500 or more per cubic millimeter. AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Volberding, P.A., Lagakos, S.W., Grimes, J.M., Stein, D.S., Rooney, J., Meng, T.C., Fischl, M.A., Collier, A.C., Phair, J.P., Hirsch, M.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. CD40L blockade prevents autoimmune diabetes by induction of bitypic NK/DC regulatory cells. Homann, D., Jahreis, A., Wolfe, T., Hughes, A., Coon, B., van Stipdonk, M.J., Prilliman, K.R., Schoenberger, S.P., von Herrath, M.G. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. A meta-analysis of low-dose aspirin for the prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disease. Imperiale, T.F., Petrulis, A.S. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Genetic factors in multiple sclerosis. Oksenberg, J.R., Begovich, A.B., Erlich, H.A., Steinman, L. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Roscovitine and other purines as kinase inhibitors. From starfish oocytes to clinical trials. Meijer, L., Raymond, E. Acc. Chem. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Therapeutic angiogenesis for coronary artery disease. Freedman, S.B., Isner, J.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of estrogen plus progestin on risk for biliary tract surgery in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease. The Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study. Simon, J.A., Hunninghake, D.B., Agarwal, S.K., Lin, F., Cauley, J.A., Ireland, C.C., Pickar, J.H. Ann. Intern. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Lymphocytes as cellular vehicles for gene therapy in mouse and man. Culver, K., Cornetta, K., Morgan, R., Morecki, S., Aebersold, P., Kasid, A., Lotze, M., Rosenberg, S.A., Anderson, W.F., Blaese, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Identity of human B-cell line cytotoxic lymphokine with tumor necrosis factor type beta. Yamanaka, H.I., Karpas, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Ondansetron compared with dexamethasone and metoclopramide as antiemetics in the chemotherapy of breast cancer with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. Levitt, M., Warr, D., Yelle, L., Rayner, H.L., Lofters, W.S., Perrault, D.J., Wilson, K.S., Latreille, J., Potvin, M., Warner, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Zidovudine, didanosine, or both as the initial treatment for symptomatic HIV-infected children. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study 152 Team. Englund, J.A., Baker, C.J., Raskino, C., McKinney, R.E., Petrie, B., Fowler, M.G., Pearson, D., Gershon, A., McSherry, G.D., Abrams, E.J., Schliozberg, J., Sullivan, J.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. A preliminary study of ritonavir, an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, to treat HIV-1 infection. Markowitz, M., Saag, M., Powderly, W.G., Hurley, A.M., Hsu, A., Valdes, J.M., Henry, D., Sattler, F., La Marca, A., Leonard, J.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Reporting on methods in clinical trials. DerSimonian, R., Charette, L.J., McPeek, B., Mosteller, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  34. Ethics of Laetrile clinical trials. Lipsett, M.B., Fletcher, J.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  35. mTOR inhibition reverses Akt-dependent prostate intraepithelial neoplasia through regulation of apoptotic and HIF-1-dependent pathways. Majumder, P.K., Febbo, P.G., Bikoff, R., Berger, R., Xue, Q., McMahon, L.M., Manola, J., Brugarolas, J., McDonnell, T.J., Golub, T.R., Loda, M., Lane, H.A., Sellers, W.R. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Vascular endothelial growth factor: basic science and clinical progress. Ferrara, N. Endocr. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Altered pharmacokinetics of vinblastine in Mdr1a P-glycoprotein-deficient Mice. van Asperen, J., Schinkel, A.H., Beijnen, J.H., Nooijen, W.J., Borst, P., van Tellingen, O. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Antitumor effects of doxorubicin in combination with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies. Baselga, J., Norton, L., Masui, H., Pandiella, A., Coplan, K., Miller, W.H., Mendelsohn, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Maternal viral load, zidovudine treatment, and the risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to infant. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. Sperling, R.S., Shapiro, D.E., Coombs, R.W., Todd, J.A., Herman, S.A., McSherry, G.D., O'Sullivan, M.J., Van Dyke, R.B., Jimenez, E., Rouzioux, C., Flynn, P.M., Sullivan, J.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Lack of long-term effects of in utero exposure to zidovudine among uninfected children born to HIV-infected women. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 219/076 Teams. Culnane, M., Fowler, M., Lee, S.S., McSherry, G., Brady, M., O'Donnell, K., Mofenson, L., Gortmaker, S.L., Shapiro, D.E., Scott, G., Jimenez, E., Moore, E.C., Diaz, C., Flynn, P.M., Cunningham, B., Oleske, J. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  41. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant vitamin supplements on coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Waters, D.D., Alderman, E.L., Hsia, J., Howard, B.V., Cobb, F.R., Rogers, W.J., Ouyang, P., Thompson, P., Tardif, J.C., Higginson, L., Bittner, V., Steffes, M., Gordon, D.J., Proschan, M., Younes, N., Verter, J.I. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Serotonin antagonists: a new class of antiemetic agents. Hesketh, P.J., Gandara, D.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1991) [Pubmed]
  43. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of all major randomised clinical trials. Boersma, E., Harrington, R.A., Moliterno, D.J., White, H., Théroux, P., Van de Werf, F., de Torbal, A., Armstrong, P.W., Wallentin, L.C., Wilcox, R.G., Simes, J., Califf, R.M., Topol, E.J., Simoons, M.L. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
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