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MeSH Review

Infant, Premature

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Disease relevance of Infant, Premature


Psychiatry related information on Infant, Premature


High impact information on Infant, Premature


Chemical compound and disease context of Infant, Premature


Biological context of Infant, Premature


Anatomical context of Infant, Premature


Associations of Infant, Premature with chemical compounds

  • In the present study, a single oral or rectal dose of a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, indomethacin, was administered to six consecutive premature infants with the syndrome who would otherwise have undergone surgical ligation of the patent ductus [25].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of ventilator-dependent premature infants with dexamethasone at two weeks of age is more hazardous and no more beneficial than treatment at four weeks of ages [26].
  • Phenylalanine was converted to tyrosine at substantial rates in both extremely premature and term infants; however, this conversion rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in extremely premature infants during both the basal and parenteral nutrition periods [27].
  • Thus, clinically stable, extremely premature infants suppress glucose production and increase glucose utilization in response to increased glucose infusion, demonstrating no inherent immaturity of these processes [28].
  • The unbound glucocorticoid activity in treated infants delivered 1-10 h after the second dose (mean, 8.4 microg per 100 ml) is similar to the unbound cortisol level after birth in untreated premature infants who develop RDS [21].

Gene context of Infant, Premature


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Infant, Premature

  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although the hemodynamic effects of dopamine and dobutamine are well described in adults, little is known of their consequences in neonates, and their impact on organ perfusion in premature infants is unclear [34].
  • A series of reports in the 1960s highlighted nutritional copper deficiencies in infants and children recovering from malnutrition in Peru; since that time, a cascade of additional cases in premature infants, in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition, and in those receiving special diets or unmodified cow milk have been reported [35].
  • Radiologic considerations of intensive care in the premature infant. Annual oration in honor of William Henry Neil, M.D., 1924-1972 [36].
  • An obliquely oriented, paravertebral "tram-track" calcification in the right upper quadrant, particularly in a premature infant with a history of umbilical venous catheterization, should suggest the diagnosis of calcified ductus venosus [37].
  • METHODS: Premature infants were assigned randomly in a balanced two-way design to early (gastrointestinal priming for 10 days) versus late initiation of feeding (total parenteral nutrition only) and continuous infusion versus intermittent bolus tube-feeding groups [38].


  1. Furosemide promotes patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants with the respiratory-distress syndrome. Green, T.P., Thompson, T.R., Johnson, D.E., Lock, J.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Adverse effects of early dexamethasone in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Stark, A.R., Carlo, W.A., Tyson, J.E., Papile, L.A., Wright, L.L., Shankaran, S., Donovan, E.F., Oh, W., Bauer, C.R., Saha, S., Poole, W.K., Stoll, B.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Inositol supplementation in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Hallman, M., Bry, K., Hoppu, K., Lappi, M., Pohjavuori, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. The anemia of prematurity. Factors governing the erythropoietin response. Stockman, J.A., Garcia, J.F., Oski, F.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Interrupted aortic arch. Impact of subaortic stenosis on management and outcome. Jacobs, M.L., Chin, A.J., Rychik, J., Steven, J.M., Nicolson, S.C., Norwood, W.I. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Abdominal muscle activity during CO2 rebreathing in sleeping neonates. Praud, J.P., Egreteau, L., Benlabed, M., Curzi-Dascalova, L., Nedelcoux, H., Gaultier, C. J. Appl. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Wernicke's encephalopathy in infancy. Development during parenteral nutrition. Meyers, C.C., Schochet, S.S., McCormick, W.F. Acta Neuropathol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Partial liquid ventilation with perflubron in premature infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. The LiquiVent Study Group. Leach, C.L., Greenspan, J.S., Rubenstein, S.D., Shaffer, T.H., Wolfson, M.R., Jackson, J.C., DeLemos, R., Fuhrman, B.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Closure of the ductus arteriosus in premature infants by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Heymann, M.A., Rudolph, A.M., Silverman, N.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Pharmacokinetic aspects of theophylline in premature newborns. Aranda, J.V., Sitar, D.S., Parsons, W.D., Loughnan, P.M., Neims, A.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Pulmonary hypertension after ibuprofen prophylaxis in very preterm infants. Gournay, V., Savagner, C., Thiriez, G., Kuster, A., Rozé, J.C. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Excitotoxicity in perinatal brain injury. Johnston, M.V. Brain Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Vitamin A status of the newborn in relation to gestational age, body weight, and maternal nutritional status. Shah, R.S., Rajalakshmi, R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Use of the intramuscular relative-dose-response test to predict bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. Zachman, R.D., Samuels, D.P., Brand, J.M., Winston, J.F., Pi, J.T. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. QT interval lengthening in premature infants treated with doxapram. Maillard, C., Boutroy, M.J., Fresson, J., Barbé, F., Hascoët, J.M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Erythropoietin, given enterally, stimulates erythropoiesis in premature infants. Ballin, A., Bilker-Reich, A., Arbel, E., Davidovitz, Y., Kohelet, D. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Methylation of theophylline to caffeine in premature infants. Boutroy, M.J., Vert, P., Monin, P., Royer, R.J., Royer-Morrot, M.J. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Development of the human coagulation system in the healthy premature infant. Andrew, M., Paes, B., Milner, R., Johnston, M., Mitchell, L., Tollefsen, D.M., Castle, V., Powers, P. Blood (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Gestational age and indomethacin elimination in the neonate. Evans, M.A., Bhat, R., Vidyasagar, D., Vadapalli, M., Fisher, E., Hastreiter, A. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Vitamin A losses to plastic intravenous infusion devices and an improved method of delivery. Gutcher, G.R., Lax, A.A., Farrell, P.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Glucocorticoid levels in maternal and cord serum after prenatal betamethasone therapy to prevent respiratory distress syndrome. Ballard, P.L., Granberg, P., Ballard, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Lymphocyte ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in infancy: increasing activity in peripheral blood B cells precedes their ability to synthesize IgG in vitro. Bastian, J.F., Ruedi, J.M., MacPherson, G.A., Golembesky, H.E., O'Connor, R.D., Thompson, L.F. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Development of natural killer cell function in the human fetus. Uksila, J., Lassila, O., Hirvonen, T., Toivanen, P. J. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Red blood cell tocopherol concentrations in a normal population of Japanese children and premature infants in relation to the assessment of vitamin E status. Mino, M., Kitagawa, M., Nakagawa, S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Pharmacologic closure of patent ductus arteriosus in the premature infant. Friedman, W.F., Hirschklau, M.J., Printz, M.P., Pitlick, P.T., Kirkpatrick, S.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. A multicenter trial of two dexamethasone regimens in ventilator-dependent premature infants. Papile, L.A., Tyson, J.E., Stoll, B.J., Wright, L.L., Donovan, E.F., Bauer, C.R., Krause-Steinrauf, H., Verter, J., Korones, S.B., Lemons, J.A., Fanaroff, A.A., Stevenson, D.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Proteolysis and phenylalanine hydroxylation in response to parenteral nutrition in extremely premature and normal newborns. Denne, S.C., Karn, C.A., Ahlrichs, J.A., Dorotheo, A.R., Wang, J., Liechty, E.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Intravenous glucose suppresses glucose production but not proteolysis in extremely premature newborns. Hertz, D.E., Karn, C.A., Liu, Y.M., Liechty, E.A., Denne, S.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Regulation of aquaporin-4 water channels by phorbol ester-dependent protein phosphorylation. Han, Z., Wax, M.B., Patil, R.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Interleukin (IL)-1 beta in tracheal aspirates from premature infants induces airway epithelial cell IL-8 expression via an NF-kappa B dependent pathway. Shimotake, T.K., Izhar, F.M., Rumilla, K., Li, J., Tan, A., Page, K., Brasier, A.R., Schreiber, M.D., Hershenson, M.B. Pediatr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Changes in neurotrophin levels in umbilical cord blood from infants with different gestational ages and clinical conditions. Chouthai, N.S., Sampers, J., Desai, N., Smith, G.M. Pediatr. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Association between the Asp299Gly polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor 4 and premature births in the Finnish population. Lorenz, E., Hallman, M., Marttila, R., Haataja, R., Schwartz, D.A. Pediatr. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity during lipid infusion in premature infants. Spear, M.L., Amr, S., Hamosh, M., Pereira, G.R., Corcoran, L.G., Hamosh, P. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on regional blood flow distribution in the neonatal piglet. Ferrara, J.J., Dyess, D.L., Peeples, G.L., Christenberry, D.P., Roberts, W.S., Tacchi, E.J., Swafford, A.N., Ardell, J.L., Powell, R.W. Ann. Surg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Clinical manifestations of nutritional copper deficiency in infants and children. Cordano, A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Radiologic considerations of intensive care in the premature infant. Annual oration in honor of William Henry Neil, M.D., 1924-1972. Singleton, E.B. Radiology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  37. Calcification of the ductus venosus: a cause of right upper quadrant calcification in the newborn. Rizzo, A.J., Haller, J.O., Mulvihill, D.M., Cohen, H.L., Da Silva, M.G. Radiology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  38. Feeding strategies for premature infants: beneficial outcomes of feeding fortified human milk versus preterm formula. Schanler, R.J., Shulman, R.J., Lau, C. Pediatrics (1999) [Pubmed]
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