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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of the RYR1 and RYR2 Ca2+ release channel isoforms by Ca2+-insensitive mutants of calmodulin.

Calmodulin (CaM) may function as a regulatory subunit of ryanodine receptor ( RYR) channels, modulating both channel activation and inhibition by Ca2+; however, mechanisms underlying differences in CaM regulation of the RYR isoforms expressed in skeletal muscle (RYR1) and cardiac muscle (RYR2) are poorly understood. Here we use a series of CaM mutants deficient in Ca2+ binding to compare determinants of CaM regulation of the RYR1 and RYR2 isoforms. In submicromolar Ca2+, activation of the RYR1 isoform by each of the single-point CaM mutants was similar to that by wild-type apoCaM, whereas in micromolar Ca2+, RYR1 inhibition by Ca2+CaM was abolished by mutations targeting CaM's C-terminal Ca2+ sites. In contrast to the RYR1, no activation of the cardiac RYR2 isoform by wild-type CaM was observed, but rather CaM inhibited the RYR2 at all Ca2+ concentrations (100 nM to 1 mM). Consequently, whereas the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the RYR1 isoform was enhanced in the presence of CaM, the RYR2 displayed the opposite response (RYR2 Ca2+ EC50 increased 7-10-fold in the presence of 5 microM wild-type CaM). CaM inhibition of the RYR2 was nonetheless abolished by each of four mutations targeting individual CaM Ca2+ sites. Furthermore, a mutant CaM deficient in Ca2+ binding at all four Ca2+ sites significantly activated the RYR2 and acted as a competitive inhibitor of RYR2 regulation by wild-type Ca2+CaM. We conclude that Ca2+ binding to CaM determines the effect of CaM on both RYR1 and RYR2 channels and that isoform differences in CaM regulation reflect the differential tuning of Ca2+ binding sites on CaM when bound to the different RYRs. These results thus suggest a novel mechanism by which CaM may contribute to functional diversity among the RYR isoforms.[1]


  1. Regulation of the RYR1 and RYR2 Ca2+ release channel isoforms by Ca2+-insensitive mutants of calmodulin. Fruen, B.R., Black, D.J., Bloomquist, R.A., Bardy, J.M., Johnson, J.D., Louis, C.F., Balog, E.M. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
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