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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The roles of Toll-like receptor 9, MyD88, and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit in the effects of two distinct CpG DNAs on dendritic cell subsets.

Oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG DNAs) can function as powerful immune adjuvants by activating APC. Compared with conventional phosphorothioate-backbone CpG DNAs, another type of CpG DNAs, called an A or D type (A/D-type), possesses higher ability to induce IFN-alpha production. Conventional CpG DNAs can exert their activity through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling, which depends on a cytoplasmic adapter, MyD88. However, it remains unknown how A/D-type CpG DNAs exhibit their immunostimulatory function. In this study we have investigated murine dendritic cell (DC) responses to these two distinct CpG DNAs. Not only splenic, but also in vitro bone marrow-derived, DCs could produce larger amounts of IFN-alpha in response to A/D-type CpG DNAs compared with conventional CpG DNAs. This IFN-alpha production was mainly due to the B220(+) DC subset. On the other hand, the B220(-) DC subset responded similarly to both CpG DNAs in terms of costimulatory molecule up-regulation and IL-12 induction. IFN-alpha, but not IL-12, induction was dependent on type I IFN. However, all activities of both CpG DNAs were abolished in TLR9- and MyD88-, but were retained in DNA-PKcs-deficient DCs. This study demonstrates that the TLR9-MyD88 signaling pathway is essential for all DC responses to both types of CpG DNAs.[1]


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