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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ion-pairing ability, chemical stability, and selectivity behavior of halogenated dodecacarborane cation exchangers in neutral carrier-based ion-selective electrodes.

Recently, it has been discovered that carba-closo-dodecaborates can be used as cation exchangers in neutral carrier-based ion-selective chemical sensors. Because of their inherent chemical stability and versatile functionalization chemistries, they offer many advantages that may potentially be exploited for ion analyses that require nontraditional sample conditions, including strongly acidic media. In this work, trimethylammonium salts of undecachlorinated (UCC), undecabrominated ( UBC), hexabrominated ( HBC), and undecaiodinated (UIC) carborane anions were prepared and evaluated for their potential use in solvent polymeric membrane-based sensors. Computational methods including Natural population analysis and electrostatic mapping were used to predict the ion-exchanging ability of each lipophilic anion. In addition, the sandwich membrane technique was used to evaluate the ion-pairing ability of each carborane anion in situ (i.e., within bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate ( DOS)- and 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE)-plasticized ISE membranes). The results of the computational and potentiometric studies found that binding affinity of the anions followed the generalized trend HBC > UCC > UBC > UIC. PVC-DOS bulk optode thin films containing the chromoionophore ETH 5315 and a respective anion were used to determine the chemical stability/lipophilicity of the carboranes and tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] borate (TFPB) in acidic media (0.2 M HOAc) under flowing conditions. The studies found that in terms of stability/lipophilicity UIC > UBC > TFPB approximately UCC >> HBC. Electrodes containing a Pb(2+)-selective ionophore, tert-butylcalix[4]arene-tetrakis(N,N-dimethylthioacetamide)(lead IV), were used to evaluate the functionality of each cation exchanger. An evaluation of response characteristics such as slope and selectivity found that UIC and UBC were quite comparable to the behavior of TFPB. Interestingly, both UIC and UBC showed a marked selectivity improvement over cadmium, with log K(pot)(pb),(Cd) values of -7.19 and -7.29, respectively, with TFPB giving a value of -5.89. Demonstrating excellent stability and suitable electrostatic properties, the carboranes, UIC in particular, are a very promising alternative to the tetraphenylborates and should find widespread application in the field of chemical sensors.[1]


  1. Ion-pairing ability, chemical stability, and selectivity behavior of halogenated dodecacarborane cation exchangers in neutral carrier-based ion-selective electrodes. Peper, S., Qin, Y., Almond, P., McKee, M., Telting-Diaz, M., Albrecht-Schmitt, T., Bakker, E. Anal. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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