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Chemical Compound Review

Cadmium-109     cadmium

Synonyms: AC1L2XHK, Cadmium, isotope of mass 109
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Disease relevance of cadmium

  • The W7 mouse thymoma cell line does not express the metallothionein-I (MT-I) gene in the presence of either cadmium or glucocorticoids, unlike most other cell lines [1].
  • Cadmium reacts with thiol groups and can substitute for zinc in certain proteins, but the reason for its toxicity in vivo remains uncertain [2].
  • Previous studies have shown that functionally, cadmium acts like steroidal estrogens in breast cancer cells as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor [3].
  • The data support the hypothesis that ingested or inhaled environmental cadmium may contribute to essential hypertension in humans [4].
  • Maximum changes occur when the cadmium intake is 10 to 20 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day [4].

Psychiatry related information on cadmium

  • Experiments with four types of invertebrates showed that feeding behavior and dietary uptake control bioaccumulation of cadmium, silver, nickel, and zinc [5].
  • Our results indicate that excessive cadmium burden could be implicated in this form of learning disorder [6].
  • The purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of dietary cadmium on morphine-induced changes in locomotor activity [7].
  • Other reasons for this reduction could be changes in dietary habits and reduced cadmium contamination from Swedish industries [8].
  • The data indicate that the absolute concentration of cadmium in teeth is not predictive or cadmium-induced caries and that the critical period for caries promotion by cadmium may be during the developmental rather than the post-developmental period of tooth formation [9].

High impact information on cadmium


Chemical compound and disease context of cadmium


Biological context of cadmium

  • The mouse metallothionein-I gene is transcriptionally regulated by cadmium following transfection into human or mouse cells [11].
  • At present there are no suitable methods either to measure the body burden of cadmium or to treat cadmium poisoning [18].
  • When mouse eggs were microinjected with this plasmid and incubated with cadmium (a natural inducer of metallothionein gene transcription) thymidine kinase activity increased approximately 10-fold compared with control eggs not exposed to cadmium [19].
  • Despite increasing attempts to control environmental pollution, changes in the distribution and bioavailability of toxic metals like mercury and cadmium are still occurring [20].
  • Here we have measured trace metals in the food web and tissues of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) in Colorado. Our results suggest that cadmium toxicity may be more common among natural populations of vertebrates than has been appreciated to date and that cadmium toxicity may often go undetected or unrecognized [21].

Anatomical context of cadmium


Associations of cadmium with other chemical compounds

  • The therapeutic effects of various chelating agents including 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL) and its soluble glycosides have been studied without much success in acute cadmium intoxication [18].
  • Inclusion of cadmium chloride in the relipidation mixture greatly increases the recovered activity of highly purified TF from human placenta by promoting incorporation of TF into phospholipid vesicles; TF that had not been incorporated into vesicles showed no coagulant activity [23].
  • An RHI mutant, with Tyr substituted for Cys at position 374 (as in microliter) confers three properties of TTX-sensitive channels: (i) greater sensitivity to TTX (730-fold); (ii) lower sensitivity to cadmium (28-fold); and (iii) altered additional block by toxin upon repetitive stimulation [24].
  • T cells isolated from the nephritic kidneys of mice treated with CdCl2 for 13 wk are also cytotoxic to heat shocked or cadmium-treated tubular cells [27].
  • We identified a tobacco glycine-rich protein, cdiGRP, specifically induced by low concentrations of cadmium and expressed in the cell walls of plant vascular tissues [28].

Gene context of cadmium


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of cadmium


  1. DNA methylation controls the inducibility of the mouse metallothionein-I gene lymphoid cells. Compere, S.J., Palmiter, R.D. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Resistance to cadmium mediated by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Jungmann, J., Reins, H.A., Schobert, C., Jentsch, S. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Cadmium mimics the in vivo effects of estrogen in the uterus and mammary gland. Johnson, M.D., Kenney, N., Stoica, A., Hilakivi-Clarke, L., Singh, B., Chepko, G., Clarke, R., Sholler, P.F., Lirio, A.A., Foss, C., Reiter, R., Trock, B., Paik, S., Martin, M.B. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Cardiovascular actions of cadmium at environmental exposure levels. Kopp, S.J., Glonek, T., Perry, H.M., Erlanger, M., Perry, E.F. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Influences of dietary uptake and reactive sulfides on metal bioavailability from aquatic sediments. Lee, B.G., Griscom, S.B., Lee, J.S., Choi, H.J., Koh, C.H., Luoma, S.N., Fisher, N.S. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparison of concentrations of some trace, bulk, and toxic metals in the hair of normal and dyslexic children. Capel, I.D., Pinnock, M.H., Dorrell, H.M., Williams, D.C., Grant, E.C. Clin. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Chronic exposure to cadmium attenuates behavioral sensitization to morphine. Nation, J.R., Miller, D.K., Livermore, C.L. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Reduced cadmium levels in human kidney cortex in sweden. Friis, L., Petersson, L., Edling, C. Environ. Health Perspect. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Influence of post-developmental cadmium on caries and cariostasis by fluoride. Shearer, T.R., Britton, J.L., DeSart, D.J. Environ. Health Perspect. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Cancer, cadmium and genome integrity. McMurray, C.T., Tainer, J.A. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The mouse metallothionein-I gene is transcriptionally regulated by cadmium following transfection into human or mouse cells. Mayo, K.E., Warren, R., Palmiter, R.D. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential regulation of metallothionein-thymidine kinase fusion genes in transgenic mice and their offspring. Palmiter, R.D., Chen, H.Y., Brinster, R.L. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Carcinogenicity of cadmium chloride aerosols in W rats. Takenaka, S., Oldiges, H., König, H., Hochrainer, D., Oberdörster, G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of mouse SLC39A8 as the transporter responsible for cadmium-induced toxicity in the testis. Dalton, T.P., He, L., Wang, B., Miller, M.L., Jin, L., Stringer, K.F., Chang, X., Baxter, C.S., Nebert, D.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Glutathione, a first line of defense against cadmium toxicity. Singhal, R.K., Anderson, M.E., Meister, A. FASEB J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of cadmium on estrogen receptor levels and estrogen-induced responses in human breast cancer cells. Garcia-Morales, P., Saceda, M., Kenney, N., Kim, N., Salomon, D.S., Gottardis, M.M., Solomon, H.B., Sholler, P.F., Jordan, V.C., Martin, M.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Cadmium uptake and toxicity via voltage-sensitive calcium channels. Hinkle, P.M., Kinsella, P.A., Osterhoudt, K.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Chelation of cadmium with BAL and DTPA in rats. Cherian, M.G. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of metallothionein--thymidine kinase fusion plasmids injected into mouse eggs. Brinster, R.L., Chen, H.Y., Warren, R., Sarthy, A., Palmiter, R.D. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Cadmium and mercury nephrotoxicity. Nicholson, J.K., Kendall, M.D., Osborn, D. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Cadmium toxicity among wildlife in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Larison, J.R., Likens, G.E., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Crock, J.G. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Metallothionein mRNA induction in HeLa cells in response to zinc or dexamethasone is a primary induction response. Karin, M., Andersen, R.D., Slater, E., Smith, K., Herschman, H.R. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Cadmium increases tissue factor (coagulation factor III) activity by facilitating its reassociation with lipids. Carson, S.D., Konigsberg, W.H. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. A mutant of TTX-resistant cardiac sodium channels with TTX-sensitive properties. Satin, J., Kyle, J.W., Chen, M., Bell, P., Cribbs, L.L., Fozzard, H.A., Rogart, R.B. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Permeation of manganese, cadmium, zinc, and beryllium through calcium channels of an insect muscle membrane. Fukuda, J., Kawa, K. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Compartmentalized and binary behavior of terminal dendrites in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Wei, D.S., Mei, Y.A., Bagal, A., Kao, J.P., Thompson, S.M., Tang, C.M. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. T cells reactive to an inducible heat shock protein induce disease in toxin-induced interstitial nephritis. Weiss, R.A., Madaio, M.P., Tomaszewski, J.E., Kelly, C.J. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. The systemic movement of a tobamovirus is inhibited by a cadmium-ion-induced glycine-rich protein. Ueki, S., Citovsky, V. Nat. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Metallothionein messenger RNA regulation in the mottled mouse and Menkes kinky hair syndrome. Packman, S., Palmiter, R.D., Karin, M., O'Toole, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. jkk-1 and mek-1 regulate body movement coordination and response to heavy metals through jnk-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Villanueva, A., Lozano, J., Morales, A., Lin, X., Deng, X., Hengartner, M.O., Kolesnick, R.N. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. MAC1, a nuclear regulatory protein related to Cu-dependent transcription factors is involved in Cu/Fe utilization and stress resistance in yeast. Jungmann, J., Reins, H.A., Lee, J., Romeo, A., Hassett, R., Kosman, D., Jentsch, S. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Engineering tolerance and accumulation of lead and cadmium in transgenic plants. Song, W.Y., Sohn, E.J., Martinoia, E., Lee, Y.J., Yang, Y.Y., Jasinski, M., Forestier, C., Hwang, I., Lee, Y. Nat. Biotechnol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Short interfering RNA-mediated silencing of glutaredoxin 2 increases the sensitivity of HeLa cells toward doxorubicin and phenylarsine oxide. Lillig, C.H., Lönn, M.E., Enoksson, M., Fernandes, A.P., Holmgren, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Synergistic chelation therapy or mixed ligand complexes for plutonium and cadmium poisoning? May, P.M., Williams, D.R. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  35. Detection of circulating metallothionein in rats injected with zinc or cadmium. Garvey, J.S., Chang, C.C. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  36. Oxidative stress causes enhanced endothelial cell injury in human heme oxygenase-1 deficiency. Yachie, A., Niida, Y., Wada, T., Igarashi, N., Kaneda, H., Toma, T., Ohta, K., Kasahara, Y., Koizumi, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Cadmium and hypertension. Ostergaard, K. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  38. Renal dysfunction in cadmium smelters: relation to in-vivo liver and kidney cadmium concentrations. Gompertz, D., Chettle, D.R., Fletcher, J.G., Mason, H., Perkins, J., Scott, M.C., Smith, N.J., Topping, M.D., Blindt, M. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
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