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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Non-localized ligand-to-metal charge transfer excited states in (Cp)2Ti(IV)(NCS)2.

The bent d(0) titanium metallocene (Cp)(2)Ti(NCS)(2) exhibits an intense phosphorescence from a ligand-to-metal charge transfer triplet excited state at 77 K in an organic glass substrate and a poly(methyl methacrylate) plastic substrate. Quantum chemical calculations and spectroscopic studies show that the orbital parentage of this triplet state arises from the promotion of an electron from an essentially nonbonding symmetry adapted pi molecular orbital located on the NCS(-) ligands to a d(z)2-(y)2 orbital located on the Ti metal. Standard infrared spectroscopy of (Cp)(2)Ti(NCS)(2) in its ground electronic state at 77 K reveals a pair of closely spaced absorptions at (2072 cm(-1), 2038 cm(-1))(glass) and (2055 cm(-1), 2015 cm(-1))(plastic) that are assigned, respectively, to the symmetric and antisymmetric CN stretching modes of the two coordinated NCS(-) ligands. Low-temperature (77 K) time-resolved infrared spectroscopy that accesses the phosphorescing triplet excited state on the ns time scale shows an IR bleach that is coincident with the two ground state CN stretching bands and an associated grow-in of a pair of new IR bands at slightly lower energies (2059 cm(-1), 2013 cm(-1))(glass) and (2049 cm(-1), 1996 cm(-1))(plastic) that are assigned, respectively, to the symmetric and antisymmetric CN stretches in the emitting triplet state. These transient IR bands decay with virtually identical lifetimes to those observed for the phosphorescence decays when measured under identical experimental conditions. Singular value decomposition analysis of the time-resolved infrared data shows that the observed transient IR features arise from the same electronic manifold as measured through luminescence studies. The close similarity between the ground state and excited-state CN stretching bands in (Cp)(2)Ti(NCS)(2) indicates that symmetry breaking does not occur in forming the charge-transfer triplet excited-state manifold; i.e., electron density is withdrawn from a delocalized pi MO spread across both NCS(-) ligands. Calculations at several levels of theory reveal a delocalized ligand-to-metal charge transfer excited triplet manifold. These calculations closely reproduce the relative intensity ratios and frequencies of the symmetric and antisymmetric transient infrared vibrations in the CN region. This study is the first time-resolved infrared investigation of a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer excited state and the first to be performed at cryogenic temperatures in thin-film organic glass and plastic substrates.[1]


  1. Non-localized ligand-to-metal charge transfer excited states in (Cp)2Ti(IV)(NCS)2. Patrick, E.L., Ray, C.J., Meyer, G.D., Ortiz, T.P., Marshall, J.A., Brozik, J.A., Summers, M.A., Kenney, J.W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
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