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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The relationship between the strength of supination of the forearm and rotation of the shoulder.

In children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy ( OBPP) who develop an internal rotation deformity of the shoulder, release of subscapularis improves the range of external rotation of the shoulder and the strength of supination of the forearm. We studied the strength of supination in 35 healthy adult volunteers at 45 degrees of both internal and external rotation. The mean and maximum torques were greater in external than internal rotation by 8.7% and 7.5%, respectively. This was highly significant (p < 0.0001). The increased strength of supination in external rotation is probably because the maximum power of biceps, particularly the long head, may be exerted in this position. In children the difference may be even greater due to anatomical differences causing the dramatic increases in the strength of supination after surgery for OBPP. In adults our findings suggest that the supination exercises which are undertaken after injury or surgery to the forearm or wrist should be performed in external rotation.[1]


  1. The relationship between the strength of supination of the forearm and rotation of the shoulder. Savva, N., McAllen, C.J., Giddins, G.E. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume. (2003) [Pubmed]
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