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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Torque

  • Two Ruminococcus torques strains, IX-70 and VIII-239, produced blood group A- and H-degrading alpha-glycosidase activities, sialidase, and the requisite beta-glycosidases; these strains released greater than 90% of the anthrone-reacting hexoses from hog gastric mucin during growth in culture [1].
  • Enzyme preparations from Bifidobacterium infantis strain VIII-240 and R. torques strain VIII-239 hydrolyzed the Lea active glycolipid directly to lactosylceramide, suggesting the presence of endo-beta 1-3-N-acetylglucosaminidase activities [2].
  • Surface reactive torques and electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to backward surface translations were compared in patients with parkinsonism ON and OFF levodopa and in elderly control subjects [3].
  • An evaluation of knee extensor and knee flexor torques and EMGs in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome in comparison with matched controls [4].
  • Isokinetic plantar flexor peak torques (PT) and contractional work (CW) of the triceps surae muscle have been measured in 24 patients with peripheral arterial insufficiency and intermittent claudication and in 15 controls [5].

High impact information on Torque

  • TMS and TES were also delivered at the active threshold intensity while the participants exerted torques ranging from 5 to 60 % of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) torque [6].
  • Sagittal plane motions of six segments (shank, thigh, pelvis, trunk, humerus, and forearm) and dynamic torques of six joints (ankle, knee, hip, lumbar, shoulder, and elbow) were analyzed separately by principal component (PC) analyses to determine if there was a commonality among the shapes of the respective waveforms [7].
  • Inverse dynamic analysis revealed that improvements in kinematics were implemented by increasing flexor muscle torques at the elbow to counter load-induced increases in extensor interaction torques as well as increasing flexor muscle torques at the shoulder to counter the extensor actions of elbow muscle torque [8].
  • 5. Neural mechanisms underlying control of index finger movement are discussed with reference to the implications of dynamic interaction torques [9].
  • 1. Torques were applied to dorsiflex or plantarflex the ankle joint of normal human subjects who were instructed to react to them in various ways [10].

Biological context of Torque

  • After 6 and 12 months of follow-up, substantial bone formation had occurred, resulting in significantly increased removal torques for the commercially pure titanium samples [11].
  • The eccentric trunk flexor and extensor torques were found to correlate with a positive dose-dependent effect on change in bone mineral density while exercise habits showed no correlation [12].

Anatomical context of Torque

  • We studied the effects of single oral doses of baclofen on voluntary, isometric knee extension torques and surface and single motor unit (MU) electromyographic (EMG) activity from the vastus lateralis in 11 individuals without neurological injury [13].
  • During terminal experiments when the hindlimb was set at positions corresponding to those in the jump, isometric torques produced by tetanic stimulation of groups of extensor and flexor muscles were compared with computed torques developed by the same cat during previous jumps [14].
  • Maximum isometric and isokinetic torques of the knee flexor and extensor muscles were measured at three knee joint positions in 72 normal, health men in three age groups from 20 to 86 years [15].

Associations of Torque with chemical compounds

  • All infants adapted to the additional load on the leg by immediately increasing the generation of hip and knee flexor muscle torques [16].
  • No significant increases were found in any other of the sagittal, coronal, or transverse knee torques when walking with dress shoes and sneakers compared to barefoot [17].
  • The tapered flexible arm of the Mizuho titanium retractor showed greater resistance to loading than a nontapered one at stronger arm-fixing torques [18].
  • The rates (percentage) of union, torques at failure, and energy to failure values were statistically significantly higher than control for all groups except hydroxylapatite [19].
  • Quadriceps torques were higher in the presence of NaHCO3 (P < 0.05): with NaHCO3 the peak, residual, and recovery (after 40 min) normalized torques were, respectively, 0.68 +/- 0.05 (SD), 0.58 +/- 0.05, and 0.73 +/- 0.05; without NaHCO3 the values were 0.45 +/- 0.04, 0.30 +/- 0.06, and 0.63 +/- 0.06 [20].

Gene context of Torque

  • The kicking leg was modeled as a three-link kinetic chain composed of thigh, shank, and foot, from which joint torques and angular velocities were computed [21].
  • Effects of position and speed on joint torques and knee shear after ACL injury [22].
  • The durations of pre-pull ankle torques increased over the whole range of %MPF, thereby compensating for the limit on ankle torque [23].
  • For the lower barrier Met chi3 rotations there are relatively more well validated cases near eclipsed values and calculated torques from the rest of the protein structure either confine or force the Cepsilon atom into the strained position [24].
  • The electrophoretic velocity of the particle and the forces and torques acting on it are determined as functions of the particle's radius, length, and position, the particle's and tube's zeta potentials, the tube's length, and the externally imposed pressures [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Torque


  1. Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystems. Isolation and properties of fecal strains that degrade ABH blood group antigens and oligosaccharides from mucin glycoproteins. Hoskins, L.C., Agustines, M., McKee, W.B., Boulding, E.T., Kriaris, M., Niedermeyer, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Degradation of human intestinal glycosphingolipids by extracellular glycosidases from mucin-degrading bacteria of the human fecal flora. Larson, G., Falk, P., Hoskins, L.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of dopamine on postural control in parkinsonian subjects: scaling, set, and tone. Horak, F.B., Frank, J., Nutt, J. J. Neurophysiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. An evaluation of knee extensor and knee flexor torques and EMGs in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome in comparison with matched controls. Werner, S. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Isokinetic strength and endurance in peripheral arterial insufficiency with intermittent claudication. Gerdle, B., Hedberg, B., Angquist, K.A., Fugl-Meyer, A.R. Scandinavian journal of rehabilitation medicine. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. The sites of neural adaptation induced by resistance training in humans. Carroll, T.J., Riek, S., Carson, R.G. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Kinematic and kinetic constraints on arm, trunk, and leg segments in target-reaching movements. Thomas, J.S., Corcos, D.M., Hasan, Z. J. Neurophysiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Interlimb transfer of novel inertial dynamics is asymmetrical. Wang, J., Sainburg, R.L. J. Neurophysiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Muscle activation patterns and kinetics of human index finger movements. Darling, W.G., Cole, K.J. J. Neurophysiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Response to sudden torques about ankle in man. II. Postmyotatic reactions. Gottlieb, G.L., Agarwal, G.C. J. Neurophysiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. A quantitative comparison of machined commercially pure titanium and titanium-aluminum-vanadium implants in rabbit bone. Johansson, C.B., Han, C.H., Wennerberg, A., Albrektsson, T. The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Trunk muscle strength is a strong predictor of bone loss in postmenopausal women. Iki, M., Saito, Y., Kajita, E., Nishino, H., Kusaka, Y. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes in voluntary torque and electromyographic activity following oral baclofen. Hornby, T.G., Heckman, C.J., Harvey, R.L., Rymer, W.Z. Muscle Nerve (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Hindlimb muscular activity, kinetics and kinematics of cats jumping to their maximum achievable heights. Zajac, F.E., Zomlefer, M.R., Levine, W.S. J. Exp. Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Strength of isometric and isokinetic contractions: knee muscles of men aged 20 to 86. Murray, M.P., Gardner, G.M., Mollinger, L.A., Sepic, S.B. Physical therapy. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. How do infants adapt to loading of the limb during the swing phase of stepping? Lam, T., Wolstenholme, C., Yang, J.F. J. Neurophysiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Men's shoes and knee joint torques relevant to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Kerrigan, D.C., Karvosky, M.E., Lelas, J.L., Riley, P.O. J. Rheumatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Dynamic properties of self-retaining retractors under load. Tada, T., Kobayashi, S., Sugita, K. Neurosurgery (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. A study of the mechanical strength of long bone defects treated with various bone autograft substitutes: an experimental investigation in the rabbit. Hopp, S.G., Dahners, L.E., Gilbert, J.A. J. Orthop. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of ingested sodium bicarbonate on muscle force, fatigue, and recovery. Verbitsky, O., Mizrahi, J., Levin, M., Isakov, E. J. Appl. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Three-dimensional kinetic analysis of side-foot and instep soccer kicks. Nunome, H., Asai, T., Ikegami, Y., Sakurai, S. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of position and speed on joint torques and knee shear after ACL injury. Osternig, L.R., Ferber, R., Mercer, J., Davis, H. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. The organization of torque and EMG activity during bilateral handle pulls by standing humans. Lee, W.A., Michaels, C.F., Pai, Y.C. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Protein imperfections: separating intrinsic from extrinsic variation of torsion angles. Butterfoss, G.L., Richardson, J.S., Hermans, J. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Electrophoresis of concentrically and eccentrically positioned cylindrical particles in a long tube. Liu, H., Bau, H.H., Hu, H.H. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Computer-aided vascular experimentation: a new electromechanical test system. Humphrey, J.D., Kang, T., Sakarda, P., Anjanappa, M. Annals of biomedical engineering. (1993) [Pubmed]
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