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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Biphasic expression of activating transcription factor-3 in neurons after cerebral infarction.

It has been demonstrated that some of immediate early genes such as c-Jun are induced immediately and transiently following focal cerebral ischemia. Here we newly characterize the activating transcription factor (ATF)-3 as a focal ischemia associated immediate early gene. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we compared the expression profile of ATF-3 with those of ATF-2 and c-Jun after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Focal cerebral ischemia induced two temporal and spatial patterns of ATF-3 expression. Early and transient induction of ATF-3 mRNA was observed in the core and margins of the cortex immediately after MCA occlusion. Late-onset and prolonged expression of ATF-3 mRNA and its protein were specifically identified in the peri-infarct cortex and thalamus where neurons survive at least 1 month. The expression profiles of ATF-3 and c-Jun were virtually similar, but c-Jun expression was also observed in other regions of the brain in control rats. Expression of ATF-2 was ubiquitously seen in neuronal cells throughout the brain in normal rats, but was suppressed in ischemic regions. Double immunohistochemical labeling revealed concurrent expression of ATF-3 and phospho-c-Jun in neurons. We conclude that the transcription factor ATF-3 is a suitable marker of neurons subjected to ischemic insult directly and indirectly, and that cooperative works of ATF-3 and c-Jun may be crucial triggers of various transcriptional responses to the ischemic insult.[1]


  1. Biphasic expression of activating transcription factor-3 in neurons after cerebral infarction. Ohba, N., Maeda, M., Nakagomi, S., Muraoka, M., Kiyama, H. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
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