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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Thalamus


Psychiatry related information on Thalamus


High impact information on Thalamus

  • Burst firing is thought to play an important role in the synchronized activity of the thalamus observed in absence epilepsy, but may also underlie a wider range of thalamocortical dysrhythmias [11].
  • I have compared the numbers of neurons in the visual thalamus (lateral geniculate nucleus; LGN) and area V1 across primate species [12].
  • T2 relaxation time measures in thalamus did not differ significantly between groups, and were not affected by methylphenidate [13].
  • Immunohistochemical staining showed that this nucleus is defined by a dense calbindin-positive fibre plexus in the macaque, so we applied the same staining method to sections of human thalamus [14].
  • Exclusively inhibitory action of iontophoretic acetylcholine on single neurones of feline thalamus [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Thalamus


Biological context of Thalamus


Anatomical context of Thalamus


Associations of Thalamus with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, addicts showed an increased response to methylphenidate in the thalamus (a region that conveys sensory input to the cortex) [29].
  • Inhibition and synchrony in slices from mice devoid of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor beta3 subunit were examined, because in rodent thalamus, beta3 is largely restricted to reticular nucleus [30].
  • In infants 5 weeks of age and younger, glucose utilization was highest in the sensorimotor cortex, thalamus, midbrain-brainstem, and cerebellar vermis [31].
  • Lateralization of norepinephrine in human thalamus [32].
  • Purinergic inhibition of GABA and glutamate release in the thalamus: implications for thalamic network activity [33].

Gene context of Thalamus

  • Cortical size, lamination, thalamus, and thalamocortical pathfinding are normal in homozygous nestin-Emx2 mice [34].
  • Our results suggest that normal thalamocortical development requires the actions of Pax6 within the dorsal thalamus itself [35].
  • Furthermore, Dlx1 and Dlx2 are not expressed in the dorsal thalamus or in cortical projections neurons [36].
  • Reciprocal patterns of expression are found within the dorsal thalamus for the Gbx-2 and Wnt-3 genes [37].
  • Consequently, development of the dorsal and ventral thalamus and anterior pretectum requires cooperation between Emx2 and Otx2, whereas Emx2 expression is incompatible with development of the commissural region of the pretectum [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thalamus


  1. Osteopetrosis and thalamic hypomyelinosis with synaptic degeneration in DAP12-deficient mice. Kaifu, T., Nakahara, J., Inui, M., Mishima, K., Momiyama, T., Kaji, M., Sugahara, A., Koito, H., Ujike-Asai, A., Nakamura, A., Kanazawa, K., Tan-Takeuchi, K., Iwasaki, K., Yokoyama, W.M., Kudo, A., Fujiwara, M., Asou, H., Takai, T. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Nigrostriatal collaterals to thalamus degenerate in parkinsonian animal models. Freeman, A., Ciliax, B., Bakay, R., Daley, J., Miller, R.D., Keating, G., Levey, A., Rye, D. Ann. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Bilateral somatosensory evoked potentials in four patients with long-standing surgical hemispherectomy. Mauguière, F., Desmedt, J.E. Ann. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Loss of thalamic intralaminar nuclei in progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease: clinical and therapeutic implications. Henderson, J.M., Carpenter, K., Cartwright, H., Halliday, G.M. Brain (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Regional changes in human cerebral blood flow during dipyridamole stress: neural activation in the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Ito, H., Yokoyama, I., Tamura, Y., Kinoshita, T., Hatazawa, J., Kawashima, R., Iida, H. Neuroimage (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Gamma-aminobutyric-acid deficiency in brain of schizophrenic patients. Perry, T.L., Kish, S.J., Buchanan, J., Hansen, S. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional basis of memory impairment in multiple sclerosis: a[18F]FDG PET study. Paulesu, E., Perani, D., Fazio, F., Comi, G., Pozzilli, C., Martinelli, V., Filippi, M., Bettinardi, V., Sirabian, G., Passafiume, D., Anzini, A., Lenzi, G.L., Canal, N., Fieschi, C. Neuroimage (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Abnormal glucose metabolism in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in schizophrenia. Hazlett, E.A., Buchsbaum, M.S., Kemether, E., Bloom, R., Platholi, J., Brickman, A.M., Shihabuddin, L., Tang, C., Byne, W. The American journal of psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Nicotine effects on brain function and functional connectivity in schizophrenia. Jacobsen, L.K., D'Souza, D.C., Mencl, W.E., Pugh, K.R., Skudlarski, P., Krystal, J.H. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Selective down-regulation of the astrocyte glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST within the medial thalamus in experimental Wernicke's encephalopathy. Hazell, A.S., Rao, K.V., Danbolt, N.C., Pow, D.V., Butterworth, R.F. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular physiology of low-voltage-activated t-type calcium channels. Perez-Reyes, E. Physiol. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. An evolutionary scaling law for the primate visual system and its basis in cortical function. Stevens, C.F. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Functional deficits in basal ganglia of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder shown with functional magnetic resonance imaging relaxometry. Teicher, M.H., Anderson, C.M., Polcari, A., Glod, C.A., Maas, L.C., Renshaw, P.F. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. A thalamic nucleus specific for pain and temperature sensation. Craig, A.D., Bushnell, M.C., Zhang, E.T., Blomqvist, A. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Exclusively inhibitory action of iontophoretic acetylcholine on single neurones of feline thalamus. Ben-Ari, Y., Kanazawa, I., Kelly, J.S. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Increased brain interstitial fluid adenosine concentration during hypoxia in newborn piglet. Park, T.S., Van Wylen, D.G., Rubio, R., Berne, R.M. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of methylphenidate on executive functioning in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: normalization of behavior but not related brain activity. Schweitzer, J.B., Lee, D.O., Hanford, R.B., Zink, C.F., Ely, T.D., Tagamets, M.A., Hoffman, J.M., Grafton, S.T., Kilts, C.D. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Histamine H(1) and H(3) receptors in the rat thalamus and their modulation after systemic kainic acid administration. Jin, C., Lintunen, M., Panula, P. Exp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Auditory thalamus bursts in anesthetized and non-anesthetized states: contribution to functional properties. Massaux, A., Dutrieux, G., Cotillon-Williams, N., Manunta, Y., Edeline, J.M. J. Neurophysiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Anterior thalamic mediation of experimental seizures: selective EEG spectral coherence. Mirski, M.A., Tsai, Y.C., Rossell, L.A., Thakor, N.V., Sherman, D.L. Epilepsia (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression and localization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mRNA and its protein in rat brain. Mulberg, A.E., Resta, L.P., Wiedner, E.B., Altschuler, S.M., Jefferson, D.M., Broussard, D.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. A strain-independent postnatal neurodegeneration in mice lacking the EGF receptor. Sibilia, M., Steinbach, J.P., Stingl, L., Aguzzi, A., Wagner, E.F. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Autoradiographic localization of relaxin binding sites in rat brain. Osheroff, P.L., Phillips, H.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. NPAS2 as a transcriptional regulator of non-rapid eye movement sleep: Genotype and sex interactions. Franken, P., Dudley, C.A., Estill, S.J., Barakat, M., Thomason, R., O'hara, B.F., McKnight, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Thalamocortical dysrhythmia: A neurological and neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by magnetoencephalography. Llinás, R.R., Ribary, U., Jeanmonod, D., Kronberg, E., Mitra, P.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. L-cysteine, a bicarbonate-sensitive endogenous excitotoxin. Olney, J.W., Zorumski, C., Price, M.T., Labruyere, J. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Direct spinal pathways to the limbic system for nociceptive information. Giesler, G.J., Katter, J.T., Dado, R.J. Trends Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. The neurotrophins BDNF, NT-3, and NGF display distinct patterns of retrograde axonal transport in peripheral and central neurons. DiStefano, P.S., Friedman, B., Radziejewski, C., Alexander, C., Boland, P., Schick, C.M., Lindsay, R.M., Wiegand, S.J. Neuron (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Decreased striatal dopaminergic responsiveness in detoxified cocaine-dependent subjects. Volkow, N.D., Wang, G.J., Fowler, J.S., Logan, J., Gatley, S.J., Hitzemann, R., Chen, A.D., Dewey, S.L., Pappas, N. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Reciprocal inhibitory connections and network synchrony in the mammalian thalamus. Huntsman, M.M., Porcello, D.M., Homanics, G.E., DeLorey, T.M., Huguenard, J.R. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Maturational changes in cerebral function in infants determined by 18FDG positron emission tomography. Chugani, H.T., Phelps, M.E. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Lateralization of norepinephrine in human thalamus. Oke, A., Keller, R., Mefford, I., Adams, R.N. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  33. Purinergic inhibition of GABA and glutamate release in the thalamus: implications for thalamic network activity. Ulrich, D., Huguenard, J.R. Neuron (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. EMX2 regulates sizes and positioning of the primary sensory and motor areas in neocortex by direct specification of cortical progenitors. Hamasaki, T., Leingärtner, A., Ringstedt, T., O'Leary, D.D. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. A role for Pax6 in the normal development of dorsal thalamus and its cortical connections. Pratt, T., Vitalis, T., Warren, N., Edgar, J.M., Mason, J.O., Price, D.J. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. The early topography of thalamocortical projections is shifted in Ebf1 and Dlx1/2 mutant mice. Garel, S., Yun, K., Grosschedl, R., Rubenstein, J.L. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Spatially restricted expression of Dlx-1, Dlx-2 (Tes-1), Gbx-2, and Wnt-3 in the embryonic day 12.5 mouse forebrain defines potential transverse and longitudinal segmental boundaries. Bulfone, A., Puelles, L., Porteus, M.H., Frohman, M.A., Martin, G.R., Rubenstein, J.L. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  38. Emx2 directs the development of diencephalon in cooperation with Otx2. Suda, Y., Hossain, Z.M., Kobayashi, C., Hatano, O., Yoshida, M., Matsuo, I., Aizawa, S. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Brain monoglyceride lipase participating in endocannabinoid inactivation. Dinh, T.P., Carpenter, D., Leslie, F.M., Freund, T.F., Katona, I., Sensi, S.L., Kathuria, S., Piomelli, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. Immediate and simultaneous sensory reorganization at cortical and subcortical levels of the somatosensory system. Faggin, B.M., Nguyen, K.T., Nicolelis, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  41. Phenotypic characterization of an alpha 4 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit knock-out mouse. Ross, S.A., Wong, J.Y., Clifford, J.J., Kinsella, A., Massalas, J.S., Horne, M.K., Scheffer, I.E., Kola, I., Waddington, J.L., Berkovic, S.F., Drago, J. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  42. Cortical and subcortical glucose consumption measured by PET in patients with Huntington's disease. Kuwert, T., Lange, H.W., Langen, K.J., Herzog, H., Aulich, A., Feinendegen, L.E. Brain (1990) [Pubmed]
  43. Neural damage in the rat thalamus after cortical infarcts. Iizuka, H., Sakatani, K., Young, W. Stroke (1990) [Pubmed]
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