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Gene Review

Plin1  -  perilipin 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Lipid droplet-associated protein, PERIA, Peri, Perilipin-1, Plin
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Disease relevance of Plin

  • Penumbral alkalosis appeared to be a time-dependent event occurring 30 to 60 minutes after the passage of peri-infarct depolarizations [1].
  • Thus, reperfusion causes damage to the tissue at the focus of ischemia while triggering remodeling in the peri-infarct region by means of perceived hyperoxia [2].
  • MI+RWJ also demonstrated increased myocyte hypertrophy in the peri-infarct and non-infarct zones, and reduced myocardial collagen and alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) immunoreactivity compared with MI+V [3].
  • Factors influencing the frequency of fluorescence transients as markers of peri-infarct depolarizations in focal cerebral ischemia [4].
  • Hyperglycemia delays terminal depolarization and enhances repolarization after peri-infarct spreading depression as measured by serial diffusion MR mapping [5].

Psychiatry related information on Plin

  • It has been suggested that pre-natal and or peri-natal hypoxia can cause permanent hearing loss as a result of interference with the generation of the endocochlear potential, especially if this interference occurs during the critical period of endocochlear potential development [6].

High impact information on Plin

  • The neoangiogenesis resulted in decreased apoptosis of hypertrophied myocytes in the peri-infarct region, long-term salvage and survival of viable myocardium, reduction in collagen deposition and sustained improvement in cardiac function [7].
  • Expression of this cytokine is not only confined strictly to the infarct or peri-infarct zone but is expressed by cardiac myocytes within the myocardium contralateral to the infarct [8].
  • The major cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) substrate in adipocytes is perilipin, a protein found exclusively at the surface of the lipid storage droplets [9].
  • However, in either the presence or the absence of agonists, A-kinase was activated as assessed by examining the phosphorylation of the major adipocyte A-kinase substrate, perilipin [10].
  • This increase in expression was limited to the immediate peri-infarct region and was absent from remote areas of the left or right ventricles [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Plin

  • The results also suggest that the relationship of frequency of peri-infarct depolarizations with plasma glucose requires further examination, to confirm the finding and to determine a safe lower limit for a target range for control of plasma glucose if insulin is used in the management of patients with cerebral ischemia [4].
  • In the peri-infarct cortex, irbesartan treatment decreased the number of apoptotic cells on day 3 and attenuated the invasion of activated microg-lia and macrophages on days 3 and 7 after ischemia [12].
  • The current study tested whether peri-neural clonidine at the time of injury could also prevent development of hypersensitivity [13].
  • Reduction of proteinuria in rats treated with enalapril and losartan was associated with a reduction in Ang II levels in both the peri-infarct and intact portions of the remnant kidney [14].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peri-infarct renal tissue Ang II levels and plasma Ang II and aldosterone levels increase transiently during the evolution of hypertension in the remnant kidney model [15].

Biological context of Plin


Anatomical context of Plin


Associations of Plin with chemical compounds

  • An increasing number of proteins have been reported to be associated with intracellular triglyceride (TG), among them the PAT family members: perilipin, ADRP (for adipocyte differentiation-related protein), and TIP47 (for tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa) [24].
  • Upon lipolytic stimulation of adipocytes isolated from young rats with the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, HSL translocated from the cytosol to the lipid droplet, but there was no movement of perilipin from the droplet to the cytosol; however, perilipin phosphorylation was observed [21].
  • We report that in intact primary adipocytes exogenous oleic acid was taken up and directly converted to TG in the plasma membrane, in a novel subclass of caveolae that specifically contains the protein perilipin [25].
  • The cortical infarct volume was larger in the early training group than in the other two groups (P < .005), possibly related to increased glutamate release and peri-infarct cortical hyperexcitability [26].
  • The present study was performed to determine the spatial and temporal expression of osteopontin and its integrin receptor alpha(v)beta3 during formation of the peri-infarct gliotic barrier and subsequent formation of a new glial-limiting membrane [27].

Other interactions of Plin

  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of PKA and PKC activities on the distribution of perilipin and ADRP in primary cultured adrenal cells, and the role of ERK in PMA- and calphostin C-induced steroidogenesis [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Plin


  1. Penumbral tissue alkalosis in focal cerebral ischemia: relationship to energy metabolism, blood flow, and steady potential. Back, T., Hoehn, M., Mies, G., Busch, E., Schmitz, B., Kohno, K., Hossmann, K.A. Ann. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of perceived hyperoxia in isolated primary cardiac fibroblasts and in the reoxygenated heart. Roy, S., Khanna, S., Wallace, W.A., Lappalainen, J., Rink, C., Cardounel, A.J., Zweier, J.L., Sen, C.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition improves cardiac function and attenuates left ventricular remodeling following myocardial infarction in the rat. See, F., Thomas, W., Way, K., Tzanidis, A., Kompa, A., Lewis, D., Itescu, S., Krum, H. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Factors influencing the frequency of fluorescence transients as markers of peri-infarct depolarizations in focal cerebral ischemia. Strong, A.J., Smith, S.E., Whittington, D.J., Meldrum, B.S., Parsons, A.A., Krupinski, J., Hunter, A.J., Patel, S., Robertson, C. Stroke (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Hyperglycemia delays terminal depolarization and enhances repolarization after peri-infarct spreading depression as measured by serial diffusion MR mapping. Els, T., Röther, J., Beaulieu, C., de Crespigny, A., Moseley, M. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Perinatal hypoxia and auditory brainstem response thresholds: no evidence of permanent hearing loss. Cycowicz, Y., Schmuel, M., Freeman, S., Wanszelbaum, A., Sohmer, H. Hear. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Neovascularization of ischemic myocardium by human bone-marrow-derived angioblasts prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduces remodeling and improves cardiac function. Kocher, A.A., Schuster, M.D., Szabolcs, M.J., Takuma, S., Burkhoff, D., Wang, J., Homma, S., Edwards, N.M., Itescu, S. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Tissue expression and immunolocalization of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in postinfarction dysfunctional myocardium. Irwin, M.W., Mak, S., Mann, D.L., Qu, R., Penninger, J.M., Yan, A., Dawood, F., Wen, W.H., Shou, Z., Liu, P. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation of cDNAs for perilipins A and B: sequence and expression of lipid droplet-associated proteins of adipocytes. Greenberg, A.S., Egan, J.J., Wek, S.A., Moos, M.C., Londos, C., Kimmel, A.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Phosphorylation state of the GLUT4 isoform of the glucose transporter in subfractions of the rat adipose cell: effects of insulin, adenosine, and isoproterenol. Nishimura, H., Saltis, J., Habberfield, A.D., Garty, N.B., Greenberg, A.S., Cushman, S.W., Londos, C., Simpson, I.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Macrophage-dependent regulation of syndecan gene expression. Li, J., Brown, L.F., Laham, R.J., Volk, R., Simons, M. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Sustained blockade of brain AT1 receptors before and after focal cerebral ischemia alleviates neurologic deficits and reduces neuronal injury, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses in the rat. Lou, M., Blume, A., Zhao, Y., Gohlke, P., Deuschl, G., Herdegen, T., Culman, J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Perioperative administration of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine at the site of nerve injury reduces the development of mechanical hypersensitivity and modulates local cytokine expression. Lavand'homme, P.M., Eisenach, J.C. Pain (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of antihypertensive therapy on intrarenal angiotensin and bradykinin levels in experimental renal insufficiency. Mackie, F.E., Meyer, T.W., Campbell, D.J. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Intrarenal angiotensin and bradykinin peptide levels in the remnant kidney model of renal insufficiency. Mackie, F.E., Campbell, D.J., Meyer, T.W. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Chronic ethanol feeding suppresses beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated lipolysis in adipocytes isolated from epididymal fat. Kang, L., Nagy, L.E. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. P2X7 receptor expression after ischemia in the cerebral cortex of rats. Franke, H., Günther, A., Grosche, J., Schmidt, R., Rossner, S., Reinhardt, R., Faber-Zuschratter, H., Schneider, D., Illes, P. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of temporal summation in age-related long-term potentiation-induction deficits. Rosenzweig, E.S., Rao, G., McNaughton, B.L., Barnes, C.A. Hippocampus. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Comprehensive regional and temporal gene expression profiling of the rat brain during the first 24 h after experimental stroke identifies dynamic ischemia-induced gene expression patterns, and reveals a biphasic activation of genes in surviving tissue. Rickhag, M., Wieloch, T., Gidö, G., Elmér, E., Krogh, M., Murray, J., Lohr, S., Bitter, H., Chin, D.J., von Schack, D., Shamloo, M., Nikolich, K. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. CGI-58 interacts with perilipin and is localized to lipid droplets. Possible involvement of CGI-58 mislocalization in Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome. Yamaguchi, T., Omatsu, N., Matsushita, S., Osumi, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin upon lipolytic stimulation of rat adipocytes. Clifford, G.M., Londos, C., Kraemer, F.B., Vernon, R.G., Yeaman, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and tie receptors after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Beck, H., Acker, T., Wiessner, C., Allegrini, P.R., Plate, K.H. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Perilipin, a major hormonally regulated adipocyte-specific phosphoprotein associated with the periphery of lipid storage droplets. Greenberg, A.S., Egan, J.J., Wek, S.A., Garty, N.B., Blanchette-Mackie, E.J., Londos, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Decrease in intramuscular lipid droplets and translocation of HSL in response to muscle contraction and epinephrine. Prats, C., Donsmark, M., Qvortrup, K., Londos, C., Sztalryd, C., Holm, C., Galbo, H., Ploug, T. J. Lipid Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Triacylglycerol is synthesized in a specific subclass of caveolae in primary adipocytes. Ost, A., Ortegren, U., Gustavsson, J., Nystrom, F.H., Strålfors, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Early training may exacerbate brain damage after focal brain ischemia in the rat. Risedal, A., Zeng, J., Johansson, B.B. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Osteopontin and its integrin receptor alpha(v)beta3 are upregulated during formation of the glial scar after focal stroke. Ellison, J.A., Velier, J.J., Spera, P., Jonak, Z.L., Wang, X., Barone, F.C., Feuerstein, G.Z. Stroke (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunocytochemical studies on lipid droplet-surface proteins in adrenal cells. Fong, T.H., Yang, C.C., Greenberg, A.S., Wang, S.M. J. Cell. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Estradiol-induced redistribution of lysosomal proteins in rat preputial gland. Evidence from immunologic probes. Szego, C.M., Nazareno, M.B., Porter, D.D. J. Cell Biol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  30. Endotoxin- and cytokine-mediated effects on liver cell proliferation and lipid metabolism after partial hepatectomy: a study with recombinant N-terminal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Straatsburg, I.H., Boermeester, M.A., Houdijk, A.P., Frederiks, W.M., Wesdorp, R.I., Van Leeuwen, P.A., Van Noorden, C.J. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of regional cerebral blood oxygenation changes during peri-infarct depolarizations in focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. Wolf, T., Lindauer, U., Reuter, U., Back, T., Villringer, A., Einhäupl, K., Dirnagl, U. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Chemical renal medullectomy prevents frusemide-induced inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction in the in situ blood perfused rat mesentery. Gerkens, J.F., Armsworth, S.J., Bhagwandeen, S.B., Smith, A.J. J. Hypertens. (1987) [Pubmed]
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