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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The molecular basis of intervertebral disk degeneration.

At present, the molecular evidence involved in the degeneration of the IVD is still in its primitive stage. In general, however, intrinsic, extrinsic, and generic factors all have shown a contribution to the initiation of degeneration. These factors may stimulate cytokines and directly or indirectly generate the cellular events thus far detected and observed. Such changes discussed have been the cellularity, matrix degradation, matrix quality, and synthesis of enzymes involved in the breakdown of the matrix, including fibronectin fragments of the degraded matrix which can contribute to further degradation. The involvement of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in the generation of vascularization and stimulation of pain receptors are still controversial but may reveal the pathway to the symptomatic conditions of IVD degeneration.[1]


  1. The molecular basis of intervertebral disk degeneration. Chung, S.A., Khan, S.N., Diwan, A.D. Orthop. Clin. North Am. (2003) [Pubmed]
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