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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Direct induction of G1-specific transcripts following reactivation of the Cdc28 kinase in the absence of de novo protein synthesis.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the genes encoding the HO endonuclease, G1-specific cyclins CLN1 and CLN2, as well as most proteins involved in DNA synthesis, are periodically transcribed with maximal levels reached in late G1. For HO and the DNA replication genes, cell cycle stage-specific expression has been shown to be dependent on the Cdc28 kinase and passage through START. Here, we show that cells released from cdc28ts arrest in the presence of cycloheximide show wild-type levels of induction for HO, CLN1, and CDC9 (DNA ligase). Induction is gradual with a significant lag not seen in untreated cells where transcript levels fluctuate coordinately with the cell cycle. This lag may be due, at least in part, to association of the Cdc28 peptide with G1 cyclins to form an active kinase complex because overexpression of CLN2 prior to release in cycloheximide increases the rate of induction for CDC9 and HO. Consistent with this, release from pheromone arrest (where CLN1 and CLN2 are not expressed) in cycloheximide shows no induction at all. Transcriptional activation of CDC9 is likely to be mediated through a conserved promoter element also present in genes for other DNA synthesis enzymes similarly cell cycle regulated. The element contains an intact MluI restriction enzyme recognition site (consensus approximately 5'-A/TPuACGCGTNA/T-3'). Insertion of a 20-bp fragment from the CDC9 promoter (containing a MluI element) upstream of LacZ confers both periodic expression and transcriptional induction in cycloheximide following release from cdc28ts arrest. High levels of induction depended on both the MluI element and CDC28. These results suggest that the activity of trans-acting factors that operate through the MluI element may be governed by phosphorylation by the Cdc28 kinase.[1]


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