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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Community reinforcement therapy for cocaine-dependent outpatients.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the contributions of community reinforcement therapy to outcome in the community reinforcement approach (CRA) + vouchers outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence. METHODS: One hundred cocaine-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment conditions: CRA + vouchers or vouchers only. All patients earned incentives in the form of vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on cocaine-free urinalysis results during treatment weeks 1 to 12. Incentives were combined with a 24-week course of CRA therapy designed to promote healthy lifestyle changes in the CRA + vouchers condition, while incentives represented the primary treatment in the vouchers-only condition. Patient drug use and psychosocial functioning were assessed at intake and at least every 3 months for 2 years after treatment entry. RESULTS: Patients treated with CRA + vouchers were retained better in treatment, used cocaine at a lower frequency during treatment but not follow-up, and reported a lower frequency of drinking to intoxication during treatment and follow-up compared with patients treated with vouchers only. Patients treated with CRA + vouchers also reported a higher frequency of days of paid employment during treatment and the initial 6 months of follow-up, decreased depressive symptoms during treatment only, and fewer hospitalizations and legal problems during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Combining CRA with vouchers had therapeutic effects on substance abuse and psychosocial functioning during treatment and posttreatment follow-up in cocaine-dependent outpatients, although effects on cocaine use appear to be limited to the treatment period.[1]


  1. Community reinforcement therapy for cocaine-dependent outpatients. Higgins, S.T., Sigmon, S.C., Wong, C.J., Heil, S.H., Badger, G.J., Donham, R., Dantona, R.L., Anthony, S. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
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