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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Anoxic fibroblasts activate a replication checkpoint that is bypassed by E1a.

Little is known about cell cycle regulation in hypoxic cells, despite its significance. We utilized an experimentally tractable model to study the proliferative responses of rat fibroblasts when rendered hypoxic (0.5% oxygen) or anoxic (<0.01% oxygen). Hypoxic cells underwent G1 arrest, whereas anoxic cells also demonstrated S-phase arrest due to suppression of DNA initiation. Upon reoxygenation, only those cells arrested in G1 were able to resume proliferation. The oncoprotein E1a induced p53-independent apoptosis in anoxic cells, which when suppressed by Bcl-2 permitted proliferation despite anoxia. E1a expression led to marked increases in the transcription factor E2F, and overexpression of E2F-1 allowed proliferation in hypoxic cells, although it had minimal effect on the anoxic suppression of DNA initiation. We thus demonstrate two distinct cell cycle responses to low oxygen and suggest that alterations that lead to increased E2F can overcome hypoxic G1 arrest but that additional alterations, promoted by E1a expression, are necessary for neoplastic cells to proliferate despite anoxia.[1]


  1. Anoxic fibroblasts activate a replication checkpoint that is bypassed by E1a. Gardner, L.B., Li, F., Yang, X., Dang, C.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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