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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Deregulated expression of interferon regulatory factor-1 in oncogene-transformed mouse fibroblasts.

Interferon (IFN) regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a transcription factor that has been historically associated with type I IFN activation and antioncogenic properties. We studied IRF-1 expression and DNA-binding capacity in nontransformed and transformed mouse fibroblasts. A 43-kDa nuclear IRF-1 protein was expressed biphasically during the cell cycle in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts, nontransformed NIH 3T3 cells, and ras revertants. IRF-1 expression became constitutive in ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells and in cells transformed by oncogenes ets, fes, fos, her-2/neu, met, mos, raf, or trk, suggesting that deregulated IRF-1 expression may be associated with loss of growth control. Lysyl oxidase (LO), a ras suppressor that is downregulated in ras transformants, is an IRF-1 target gene, but it is not stimulated by abundant IRF-1 present in transformants, while another IRF-1 target gene (iNOS) is transcribed. IRF-1 from either normal or ras-transformed cells bound to IRF elements in the IFN-beta and LO promoters. IRF-1 in transformants can, therefore, bind to but not transactivate the LO promoter, and the presence of IRF-1 is not sufficient to suppress ras transformation. LO expression may effect the regulated expression of IRF-1: a ras revertant, which was generated by stable transfection of LO cDNA, regained the normal biphasic IRF-1 pattern. A mainly cytoplasmic, constitutively expressed 46-kDa protein with immunologic identity to the 43-kDa nuclear IRF-1 was also present in normal and transformed cells, but as it did not bind to the IRF elements, its function is unclear.[1]


  1. Deregulated expression of interferon regulatory factor-1 in oncogene-transformed mouse fibroblasts. Contente, S., Attard, F.A., Yeh, T.J., Buchhagen, D.L., Friedman, R.M. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
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