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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Sites of protein kinase A activation of the human ClC-2 Cl(-) channel.

Human ClC-2 Cl(-) (hClC-2) channels are activated by protein kinase A (PKA) and low extracellular pH(o). Both of these effects are prevented by the PKA inhibitor, myristoylated PKI. The aims of the present study were to identify the PKA phosphorylation site(s) important for PKA activation of hClC-2 at neutral and low pH(o) and to examine the relationship between PKA and low pH(o) activation. Recombinant hClC-2 with point mutations of consensus phosphorylation sites was prepared and stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. The responses to forskolin plus isobutylmethylxanthine at neutral and acidic pH(o) were studied by whole cell patch clamp in the presence and absence of phosphatase inhibitors. The double phosphorylation site (RRAT655(A) plus RGET691(A)) mutant hClC-2 lost PKA activation and low pH(o) activation. Either RRAT or RGET was sufficient for PKA activation of hClC-2 at pH(o) 7.4, as long as phosphatase inhibitors (cyclosporin A or endothal) were present. At pH(o) 6 only RGET was needed for PKA activation of hClC-2. Low pH(o) activation of hClC-2 Cl(-) channel activity was PKA-dependent, retained in RGET(A) mutant hClC-2, but lost in RRAT(A) mutant hClC-2. RRAT655(D) mutant hClC-2 was constitutively active and was further activated by PKA at pH(o) 7.4 and 6.0, consistent with the above findings. These results show that activation of hClC-2 is differentially regulated by PKA at two sites, RRAT655 and RGET691. Either RRAT655 or RGET691 was sufficient for activation at pH(o) 7. 4. RGET, but not RRAT, was sufficient for activation at pH(o) 6. 0. However, in the RGET691(D) mutant, there was PKA activation at pH(o) 6.0.[1]


  1. Sites of protein kinase A activation of the human ClC-2 Cl(-) channel. Cuppoletti, J., Tewari, K.P., Sherry, A.M., Ferrante, C.J., Malinowska, D.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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