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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Interaction of two phenothiazine derivatives with phospholipid monolayers.

This paper addresses the cooperative interaction of two phenothiazine drugs, viz. trifluoperazine (TFP) and chlorpromazine (CPZ), with phospholipid monolayers as the model membrane system. Surface pressure and surface potential isotherms were obtained for mixed Langmuir monolayers of either dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (DPPC) or dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl-glycerol (DPPG) co-spread with TFP or CPZ. The changes in monolayer behavior caused by incorporation of a few molar ratio of drug molecules were practically within the experimental dispersion for the zwitterionic DPPC, and therefore a more refined analysis will be required to probe the interactions in an unequivocal way. For the charged DPPG, on the other hand, the surface pressure and the dipole moment were significantly affected even for TFP or CPZ concentrations as low as 0.002 molar ratio. Overall, the effects from CPZ and TFP are similar, but small differences exist which are probably due to the different protonation properties of the two drugs. For both drugs, changes are more prominent at the liftoff of the surface pressure, i.e. at the gas-condensed phase transition, with the surface pressure and surface potential isotherms becoming more expanded with the drug incorporation. With DPPG/CPZ monolayers, in particular, an additional phase transition appears at higher CPZ concentrations, which resembles the effects from increasing the subphase temperature for a pure DPPG monolayer. The dipole moment for DPPG/CPZ and DPPG/TFP monolayers decreases with the drug concentration, which means that the effects from the charged drugs are not associated with changes in the double-layer potential. Otherwise, the effective dipole moment should increase with the drug concentration. The changes caused in surface pressure and dipole moment by small concentrations of TFP or CPZ can only be explained by some cooperative effect through which the contribution from DPPG molecules changes considerably, i.e. even DPPG molecules that are not neighbor to a CPZ or TFP molecule are also affected. Such changes may occur either through a significant reorientation of the DPPG molecules or to a change in their hydration state. We discuss the cooperativity semi-quantitatively by estimating the number of lipid molecules affected by the drug interaction. CPZ and TFP also affect the morphology of DPPG monolayers, which was confirmed with Brewster angle microscopy. The biological implications from the cooperative, non-specific interaction of CPZ and TFP with membranes are also commented upon.[1]


  1. Interaction of two phenothiazine derivatives with phospholipid monolayers. Hidalgo, A.A., Caetano, W., Tabak, M., Oliveira, O.N. Biophys. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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