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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of in vitro estrogen and androgen receptor agonists in North Sea offshore produced water discharges.

The estrogen receptor (ER) agonist potency of offshore produced water discharges was examined via bioassay-directed chemical analysis. The in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) agonist potency of five produced water samples collected from oil-production platforms in the British and Norwegian sectors of the North Sea was determined by using the yeast estrogen and androgen screens. Produced water samples were extracted in situ on the production platforms by using large-volume solid-phase extraction. All five extracts tested positive for the presence of ER agonists, whereas no AR agonist activity could be detected. By using the yeast estrogen screen assay in association with bioassay-directed fractionation, attempts were made to identify the ER agonist compounds present in the produced water extracts. The fractionation procedure used cyano-amino-bonded silica normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to isolate estrogenic compounds from produced water extract followed by full-scan gas chromatography-electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC-(EI)MS) to identify them. Isomeric mixtures of C1 to C5 and C9 alkylphenols contributed to the majority of the ER agonist potency measured in the samples.[1]


  1. Identification of in vitro estrogen and androgen receptor agonists in North Sea offshore produced water discharges. Thomas, K.V., Balaam, J., Hurst, M.R., Thain, J.E. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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