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Chemical Compound Review

AC1L18V1     6-[[4-[2-[2-[3-acetamido-5- hydroxy-2...

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Disease relevance of C5


Psychiatry related information on C5

  • A reduction in protection in C5-deficient mice was observed, suggesting a significant role for complement in certain host defense mechanisms against B. pertussis infection [4].
  • Twenty-eight unrelated patients with Huntington's chorea were found to have a significantly altered incidence of the C5 + variant and six patients from this group were found to have the rare E1f gene [5].
  • The results showed that erythromycin and oleandomycin, the 14-membered macrolides with two side chain sugars combined at C3 and C5 in a glycosidic linkage in parallel, strongly stimulate gastrointestinal motor activity, an action accompanied by vomiting at large doses [6].
  • Twenty C5 through C7 spinal cord injury individuals recruited from a University outpatient clinic were randomly assigned to a massage therapy group or an exercise group [7].

High impact information on C5

  • Direct and indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase assays showed colocalization along the myelin sheaths of peripheral-nerve fibers of monoclonal protein with complement components C1q, C3d, and C5 [8].
  • Wild-type choroidal macrophages degrade C5 and IgG in eye sections of Ccl2(-/-) or Ccr2(-/-) mice [9].
  • Levy et al.5 showed that somatic cell hybrids between C5 deficient (B10.D2/old line) macrophages and either C5 sufficient (B10.D2/new line) mouse kidney or chicken erythroblasts secreted haemolytically active mouse C5 in vitro [10].
  • In addition deficient mice produce antibody to mouse C5 when injected with sera from C5 sufficient (normal) strains [10].
  • A catalytic RNA (ribozyme) derived from an intervening sequence (IVS) RNA of Tetrahymena thermophila will catalyze an RNA polymerization reaction in which pentacytidylic acid (C5) is extended by the successive addition of mononucleotides derived from a guanylyl-(3',5')-nucleotide (GpN) [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of C5

  • It is concluded that CVF covalently linked to melanoma cell-bound AB forms the stable C3/C5 convertase with factors B and D of the alternative pathway, which in turn causes formation of the membrane attack complex and thereby cell death [12].
  • Removal of exposed, terminal sialic acid (SA) from carbohydrate chains N-glycosidically linked to asparagine residues of highly pure human C5 with bacterial sialidase increased C-mediated hemolysis of antibody-sensitized sheep E maximally 2.77-fold [13].
  • Experiments with mastocytoma cells showed that a hydrogen is stereospecifically eliminated from C-10 during the conversion of eicosapentaenoic acid to leukotriene C5 [14].
  • The distance and relative orientation of the C5' methyl group of 5'-deoxyadenosine and the substrate radical in vitamin B(12) coenzyme-dependent ethanolamine deaminase from Salmonella typhimurium have been characterized by using X-band two-pulse electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy in the disordered solid state [15].
  • In this report, we evaluated whether activation of C5 is sufficient to neutralize HSV-2 gC-null virus, or whether formation of the membrane attack complex by C6 to C9 is required for neutralization [16].

Biological context of C5

  • The ability of B. rodhaini to penetrate red cells depends on factors of the alternative complement pathway (properdin and factor B) as well as ionic magnesium and the third (C3) and the fifth (C5) components of complement [17].
  • These results suggest that only C4b-associated C3b serves as a high-affinity C5 binding site [18].
  • Human monocyte spreading induced by factor Bb of the alternative pathway of complement activation. A possible role for C5 in monocyte spreading [19].
  • This phenotype may be due to a delay in contact with self-antigen presentation which, under physiological conditions, is inefficient in the cortex of C5+ mice, and therefore does not affect most immature double positive thymocytes [20].
  • Concerning the first region, on proximal chromosome (chr)2, candidate assignment to the complement gene C5 was confirmed by both strain segregation analysis and functional data [21].

Anatomical context of C5

  • Rabbit plasma kallikrein incubated with rabbit C5 resulted in the generation of chemotactic and secretagogue activity for rabbit neutrophils [22].
  • In the absence of C5 protein thymocytes from T cell receptor transgenic mice develop into mature CD4 single positive cells which emigrate into the periphery and mount C5-specific T cell responses upon immunization with C5 [20].
  • Antibody-coated erythrocytes are lysed by murine C5- whole blood but not by plasma separated from such blood [23].
  • With this in mind, the role of C3 and C5 in the monocyte spreading reaction was explored in the present study [19].
  • Irradiated C5-deficient hosts repopulated with lymphoid cells from thymectomized C5-deficient mice grafted with C5-sufficient thymus also failed to respond to immunization with C5, thus showing that the state of tolerance can be adoptively transferred [24].

Associations of C5 with other chemical compounds

  • These proteins are: C3, Factor B, Factor D, C3b inactivator, beta1H, native properdin, C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9 [25].
  • B, D, properdin, C3bINA, and C2 were detected by functional assays, whereas beta 1H, C4, C3, and C5 could only be detected using immunochemical procedures [26].
  • Specific generation of C3a desArg and C5b-9 by LCA indicated C3/C5 convertase formation with activation proceeding to completion [27].
  • Expression of C3 and C5 on the surface of human peripheral blood monocytes was investigated by the direct fluorescent antibody technique employing fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-C3 or C5 F(ab')2 antibody fragments [19].
  • Cationic homopolymers of poly-L-lysine were found to activate complement (C) via C-reactive protein (CRP) and deplete C3 and C5 as well as early-acting C components [28].

Gene context of C5

  • Investigation has shown C4-A6 to have the same reactivity as other C4-A allotypes except in the formation of the complex protease, C5 convertase [29].
  • In clone C5 and strain MC, these activities resided on different tryptic fragments, but a single tryptic fragment from clone ItG-ICAM bound to both CD36 and TSP [30].
  • Cell surface antigen CD109 is a novel member of the alpha(2) macroglobulin/C3, C4, C5 family of thioester-containing proteins [31].
  • Following the inheritance of DNA restriction fragment-length polymorphisms revealed by the probes in recombinant inbred mouse strains allowed the factor H-associated fragments to be mapped to Sas-1 on chromosome 1, and the C5-associated fragments to be mapped to Hc [32].
  • Interestingly, IFN-alpha significantly decreased both C3 and C5 production, i.e., 38 and 71%, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of C5

  • In accordance with the hypothesis that C4b-associated C4b might also serve as a high-affinity C5-binding site, a small amount of C4b-C4b dimer was detected on EAC14 cells by SDS-PAGE analysis [18].
  • C3- or C5-deficient mice exhibited high mortality, parenchymal damage, and impaired liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy [34].
  • Synthetic FVIII peptides were examined for the ability to competitively inhibit the binding of C5 to FVIII in an ELISA system [35].
  • LTB4 and LTB5 were also quantitated by radioimmunoassay of the eluate fractions, and leukotrienes C4 and C5 (LTC4 and LTC5, respectively) were quantitated by radioimmunoassay alone [36].
  • Furthermore, these data identify the C5 component as a site for therapeutic intervention in cardiopulmonary bypass [37].


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  2. The third component of complement protects against Escherichia coli endotoxin-induced shock and multiple organ failure. Quezado, Z.M., Hoffman, W.D., Winkelstein, J.A., Yatsiv, I., Koev, C.A., Cork, L.C., Elin, R.J., Eichacker, P.Q., Natanson, C. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  4. Analysis of protective and nonprotective monoclonal antibodies specific for Bordetella pertussis lipooligosaccharide. Shahin, R.D., Hamel, J., Leef, M.F., Brodeur, B.R. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. The plasma cholinesterase variants in mentally ill patients. Whittaker, M., Berry, M. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Gastrointestinal motor-stimulating activity of macrolide antibiotics and analysis of their side effects on the canine gut. Itoh, Z., Suzuki, T., Nakaya, M., Inoue, M., Mitsuhashi, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Spinal cord patients benefit from massage therapy. Diego, M.A., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Hart, S., Brucker, B., Field, T., Burman, I. Int. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Complement-mediated demyelination in patients with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and polyneuropathy. Monaco, S., Bonetti, B., Ferrari, S., Moretto, G., Nardelli, E., Tedesco, F., Mollnes, T.E., Nobile-Orazio, E., Manfredini, E., Bonazzi, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. An animal model of age-related macular degeneration in senescent Ccl-2- or Ccr-2-deficient mice. Ambati, J., Anand, A., Fernandez, S., Sakurai, E., Lynn, B.C., Kuziel, W.A., Rollins, B.J., Ambati, B.K. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Genetic defect in secretion of complement C5 in mice. Ooi, Y.M., Colten, H.R. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. RNA as an RNA polymerase: net elongation of an RNA primer catalyzed by the Tetrahymena ribozyme. Been, M.D., Cech, T.R. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of immune cytolysis: tumor-cell killing by complement is initiated by covalent complex of monoclonal antibody and stable C3/C5 convertase. Vogel, C.W., Müller-Eberhard, H.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Functional properties of the asialo-fifth component of human complement. Schultz, D.R., Arnold, P.I. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Stereospecific elimination of hydrogen at C-10 in eicosapentaenoic acid during the conversion to leukotriene C5. Hammarström, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Interaction of the substrate radical and the 5'-deoxyadenosine-5'-methyl group in vitamin B(12) coenzyme-dependent ethanolamine deaminase. Warncke, K., Utada, A.S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 glycoprotein C prevents complement-mediated neutralization induced by natural immunoglobulin M antibody. Hook, L.M., Lubinski, J.M., Jiang, M., Pangburn, M.K., Friedman, H.M. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Babesia rodhaini: requirement of complement for penetration of human erythrocytes. Chapman, W.E., Ward, P.A. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Covalent association of C3b with C4b within C5 convertase of the classical complement pathway. Takata, Y., Kinoshita, T., Kozono, H., Takeda, J., Tanaka, E., Hong, K., Inoue, K. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Human monocyte spreading induced by factor Bb of the alternative pathway of complement activation. A possible role for C5 in monocyte spreading. Sundsmo, J.S., Götze, O. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Mechanisms of tolerance induction in major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted T cells specific for a blood-borne self-antigen. Zal, T., Volkmann, A., Stockinger, B. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic influences on the end-stage effector phase of arthritis. Ji, H., Gauguier, D., Ohmura, K., Gonzalez, A., Duchatelle, V., Danoy, P., Garchon, H.J., Degott, C., Lathrop, M., Benoist, C., Mathis, D. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Chemotactic activity generated from the fifth component of complement by plasma kallikrein of the rabbit. Wiggins, R.C., Giclas, P.C., Henson, P.M. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Lysis of antibody-coated cells by platelets. Soper, W.D., Bartlett, S.P., Winn, H.J. J. Exp. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Role of the thymus in natural tolerance to an autologous protein antigen. Boguniewicz, M., Sunshine, G.H., Borel, Y. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
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  27. Isolation and characterization of a complement-activating lipid extracted from human atherosclerotic lesions. Seifert, P.S., Hugo, F., Tranum-Jensen, J., Zâhringer, U., Muhly, M., Bhakdi, S. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Interactions of C-reactive protein with the complement system. II. C-reactive protein-mediated consumption of complement by poly-L-lysine polymers and other polycations. Siegel, J., Osmand, A.P., Wilson, M.F., Gewurz, H. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. The origin of the very variable haemolytic activities of the common human complement component C4 allotypes including C4-A6. Dodds, A.W., Law, S.K., Porter, R.R. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 is a parasitized erythrocyte receptor for adherence to CD36, thrombospondin, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Baruch, D.I., Gormely, J.A., Ma, C., Howard, R.J., Pasloske, B.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Cell surface antigen CD109 is a novel member of the alpha(2) macroglobulin/C3, C4, C5 family of thioester-containing proteins. Lin, M., Sutherland, D.R., Horsfall, W., Totty, N., Yeo, E., Nayar, R., Wu, X.F., Schuh, A.C. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Chromosomal location of the genes encoding complement components C5 and factor H in the mouse. D'Eustachio, P., Kristensen, T., Wetsel, R.A., Riblet, R., Taylor, B.A., Tack, B.F. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Cytokine regulation of C3 and C5 production by the human type II pneumocyte cell line, A549. Rothman, B.L., Despins, A.W., Kreutzer, D.L. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. The proinflammatory mediators C3a and C5a are essential for liver regeneration. Strey, C.W., Markiewski, M., Mastellos, D., Tudoran, R., Spruce, L.A., Greenbaum, L.E., Lambris, J.D. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Localization of the binding regions of a murine monoclonal anti-factor VIII antibody and a human anti-factor VIII alloantibody, both of which inhibit factor VIII procoagulant activity, to amino acid residues threonine351-serine365 of the factor VIII heavy chain. Foster, P.A., Fulcher, C.A., Houghten, R.A., de Graaf Mahoney, S., Zimmerman, T.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Effects of exogenous arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids on the generation of 5-lipoxygenase pathway products by ionophore-activated human neutrophils. Lee, T.H., Mencia-Huerta, J.M., Shih, C., Corey, E.J., Lewis, R.A., Austen, K.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  37. Blockade of C5a and C5b-9 generation inhibits leukocyte and platelet activation during extracorporeal circulation. Rinder, C.S., Rinder, H.M., Smith, B.R., Fitch, J.C., Smith, M.J., Tracey, J.B., Matis, L.A., Squinto, S.P., Rollins, S.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
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