The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Enhancement of hepatocarcinogenesis by kojic acid in rat two-stage models after initiation with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine or N-diethylnitrosamine.

Kojic acid (KA) has been used as a food additive for preventing enzymatic browning of crustaceans and as a cosmetic agent for skin whitening. In the present experiments, effects of KA on the induction of hepatic pre-neoplastic lesions in N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine-initiated (experiment 1) and non-initiated (experiment 2) models, and its promoting influence in a medium-term liver bioassay (experiment 3) were investigated at dietary doses of up to 2% in male F344 rats. In experiment 1, 2% KA feeding induced significant increases in numbers (22.3 +/- 13.0 vs 8.5 +/- 3.4 in the 0%) and areas (0.37 +/- 0.29 vs 0.05 +/- 0.03 in the 0%) of glutathione-S-transferase P form (GST-P)-positive foci and toxic changes such as vacuolation of hepatocytes and microgranulomas. The development of GST-P-positive foci was pronounced in the animals with hepatocellular toxic changes. In experiment 2, numbers (0.65 +/- 0.57 vs 0.17 +/- 0.28 in the 0%) and areas (0.005 +/- 0.005 vs 0.0007 +/- 0.0012 in the 0%) of GST-P-positive foci and hepatocellular proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression (3.8 +/- 2.3 vs 2.6 +/- 0.7 in the 0%) were significantly increased by the 2% treatment. The PCNA-positive hepatocytes were abundantly localized around the vacuolated and granulomatous legions in both experiments 1 and 2. In experiment 3, significant increases in numbers (16.9 +/- 3.2 vs 8.4 +/- 2.7 in the 0%) and areas (1.62 +/- 0.39 vs 0.77 +/- 0.34 in the 0%) of GST-P-positive foci were again observed with 2% KA. These results demonstrate tumor-promoting and possible hepatocarcinogenic activity of KA at 2%, but the carcinogenic potential is likely to be weak. This study also indicated that enhanced replication of hepatocytes related to toxic changes might be involved as an underlying mechanism.[1]

References

  1. Enhancement of hepatocarcinogenesis by kojic acid in rat two-stage models after initiation with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine or N-diethylnitrosamine. Takizawa, T., Imai, T., Onose, J., Ueda, M., Tamura, T., Mitsumori, K., Izumi, K., Hirose, M. Toxicol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
 
WikiGenes - Universities