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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Necdin interacts with the Msx2 homeodomain protein via MAGE-D1 to promote myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells.

Necdin is a potent growth suppressor that is expressed predominantly in postmitotic cells such as neurons and skeletal muscle cells. Necdin shows a significant homology to MAGE (melanoma antigen) family proteins, all of which contain a large homology domain. MAGE-D1 (NRAGE, Dlxin-1) interacts with the Dlx/Msx family homeodomain proteins via an interspersed hexapeptide repeat domain distinct from the homology domain. Here we report that necdin associates with the Msx homeodomain proteins via MAGE-D1 to modulate their function. In vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that MAGE-D1 directly interacted with necdin via the homology domain and Msx1 (or Msx2) via the repeat domain. A ternary complex of necdin, MAGE-D1, and Msx2 was formed in vitro, and an endogenous complex containing these three proteins was detected in differentiating embryonal carcinoma cells. Co-expression of necdin and MAGE-D1 released Msx-dependent transcriptional repression. C2C12 myoblast cells that were stably transfected with Msx2 cDNA showed a marked reduction in myogenic differentiation, and co-expression of necdin and MAGE-D1 canceled the Msx2-dependent repression. These results suggest that necdin and MAGE-D1 cooperate to modulate the function of Dlx/Msx homeodomain proteins in cellular differentiation.[1]


  1. Necdin interacts with the Msx2 homeodomain protein via MAGE-D1 to promote myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. Kuwajima, T., Taniura, H., Nishimura, I., Yoshikawa, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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