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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mutually exclusive mutations of the Pten and ras pathways in skin tumor progression.

Pten heterozygous (Pten+/-) mice develop increased papilloma numbers and show decreased carcinoma latency time in comparison with controls after skin treatment with dimethyl benzanthracene (DMBA) and tetradecanoyl-phorbol acetate (TPA). H-ras mutation is normally a hallmark of DMBA-TPA-induced skin tumors, but 70% of carcinomas from Pten+/- mice do not exhibit this mutation, and in all cases have lost the wild-type Pten allele. Tumors that retain the Pten wild-type allele also have H-ras mutations, indicating that activation of H-ras and complete loss of Pten are mutually exclusive events in skin carcinomas. Mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK) is consistently activated in the tumors with H-ras mutations, but is strongly down-regulated in Pten-/- tumors, suggesting that this pathway is dispensable for skin carcinoma formation. These data have important implications in designing individual therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer.[1]


  1. Mutually exclusive mutations of the Pten and ras pathways in skin tumor progression. Mao, J.H., To, M.D., Perez-Losada, J., Wu, D., Del Rosario, R., Balmain, A. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
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