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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Carcinoma


Psychiatry related information on Carcinoma


High impact information on Carcinoma


Chemical compound and disease context of Carcinoma


Biological context of Carcinoma


Anatomical context of Carcinoma

  • Our findings indicate that fibroblasts within invasive breast carcinomas contribute to tumor promotion in large part through the secretion of SDF-1 [11].
  • Seventeen of 27 patients with functioning islet-cell carcinomas had elevated plasma levels of hCG or one of its subunits (hCG-alpha and hCG-beta) [26].
  • The CAFs, which exhibit the traits of myofibroblasts, play a central role in promoting the growth of tumor cells through their ability to secrete stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1); CAFs promote angiogenesis by recruiting endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into carcinomas, an effect mediated in part by SDF-1 [11].
  • Most human carcinomas of the exocrine pancreas contain mutant c-K-ras genes [27].
  • Immunohistochemical analyses of individual cells within tissue sections reveal differences in ras p21 expression in colon carcinomas compared with normal colonic epithelium, benign colon tumours and inflammatory or dysplastic colon lesions [28].

Gene context of Carcinoma

  • Aberrant transcripts of the FHIT locus were found in approximately 50% of esophageal, stomach, and colon carcinomas [29].
  • The Smad4/DPC4 tumour suppressor is inactivated in nearly half of pancreatic carcinomas and to a lesser extent in a variety of other cancers [30].
  • In this study, PIK3CA, encoding the p110alpha catalytic subunit of PI3K, is identified as an oncogene involved in upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) carcinomas [31].
  • BTG2 expression was found to be significantly reduced in a large proportion of human kidney and breast carcinomas, suggesting that BTG2 is a tumor suppressor that links p53 and Rb pathways in human tumorigenesis [32].
  • H-ras mutation is normally a hallmark of DMBA-TPA-induced skin tumors, but 70% of carcinomas from Pten+/- mice do not exhibit this mutation, and in all cases have lost the wild-type Pten allele [33].
  • In contrast to colon carcinomas, neither APC nor CTNNB1 point mutations seem to play a significant role in carcinogenesis, indicating divergent mechanisms of wnt/wingless control in the small and the large intestine [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carcinoma


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  12. Mutant p53 gain of function in two mouse models of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Olive, K.P., Tuveson, D.A., Ruhe, Z.C., Yin, B., Willis, N.A., Bronson, R.T., Crowley, D., Jacks, T. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
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  14. Frequent somatic mutations in PTEN and TP53 are mutually exclusive in the stroma of breast carcinomas. Kurose, K., Gilley, K., Matsumoto, S., Watson, P.H., Zhou, X.P., Eng, C. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Germline and somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the MET proto-oncogene in papillary renal carcinomas. Schmidt, L., Duh, F.M., Chen, F., Kishida, T., Glenn, G., Choyke, P., Scherer, S.W., Zhuang, Z., Lubensky, I., Dean, M., Allikmets, R., Chidambaram, A., Bergerheim, U.R., Feltis, J.T., Casadevall, C., Zamarron, A., Bernues, M., Richard, S., Lips, C.J., Walther, M.M., Tsui, L.C., Geil, L., Orcutt, M.L., Stackhouse, T., Lipan, J., Slife, L., Brauch, H., Decker, J., Niehans, G., Hughson, M.D., Moch, H., Storkel, S., Lerman, M.I., Linehan, W.M., Zbar, B. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Activation of ras genes in human tumors does not affect localization, modification, or nucleotide binding properties of p21. Finkel, T., Der, C.J., Cooper, G.M. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia. Kumar, R., Sukumar, S., Barbacid, M. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Rhodamine-123 selectively reduces clonal growth of carcinoma cells in vitro. Bernal, S.D., Lampidis, T.J., Summerhayes, I.C., Chen, L.B. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites in human breast carcinoma. Eidne, K.A., Flanagan, C.A., Millar, R.P. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Loss of the mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity underlies the glucose avidity of carcinomas. López-Ríos, F., Sánchez-Aragó, M., García-García, E., Ortega, A.D., Berrendero, J.R., Pozo-Rodríguez, F., López-Encuentra, A., Ballestín, C., Cuezva, J.M. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Mutations of the VHL tumour suppressor gene in renal carcinoma. Gnarra, J.R., Tory, K., Weng, Y., Schmidt, L., Wei, M.H., Li, H., Latif, F., Liu, S., Chen, F., Duh, F.M. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Genetic changes in skin tumor progression: correlation between presence of a mutant ras gene and loss of heterozygosity on mouse chromosome 7. Bremner, R., Balmain, A. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Mutations of the E-cadherin gene in human gynecologic cancers. Risinger, J.I., Berchuck, A., Kohler, M.F., Boyd, J. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Genome scanning with array CGH delineates regional alterations in mouse islet carcinomas. Hodgson, G., Hager, J.H., Volik, S., Hariono, S., Wernick, M., Moore, D., Nowak, N., Albertson, D.G., Pinkel, D., Collins, C., Hanahan, D., Gray, J.W. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
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  27. Most human carcinomas of the exocrine pancreas contain mutant c-K-ras genes. Almoguera, C., Shibata, D., Forrester, K., Martin, J., Arnheim, N., Perucho, M. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Monoclonal antibodies define differential ras gene expression in malignant and benign colonic diseases. Thor, A., Horan Hand, P., Wunderlich, D., Caruso, A., Muraro, R., Schlom, J. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. The FHIT gene, spanning the chromosome 3p14.2 fragile site and renal carcinoma-associated t(3;8) breakpoint, is abnormal in digestive tract cancers. Ohta, M., Inoue, H., Cotticelli, M.G., Kastury, K., Baffa, R., Palazzo, J., Siprashvili, Z., Mori, M., McCue, P., Druck, T., Croce, C.M., Huebner, K. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
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  31. p53 regulates cell survival by inhibiting PIK3CA in squamous cell carcinomas. Singh, B., Reddy, P.G., Goberdhan, A., Walsh, C., Dao, S., Ngai, I., Chou, T.C., O-Charoenrat, P., Levine, A.J., Rao, P.H., Stoffel, A. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. A systematic search for downstream mediators of tumor suppressor function of p53 reveals a major role of BTG2 in suppression of Ras-induced transformation. Boiko, A.D., Porteous, S., Razorenova, O.V., Krivokrysenko, V.I., Williams, B.R., Gudkov, A.V. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  34. Large-scale N-terminal deletions but not point mutations stabilize beta-catenin in small bowel carcinomas, suggesting divergent molecular pathways of small and large intestinal carcinogenesis. Breuhahn, K., Singh, S., Schirmacher, P., Bläker, H. J. Pathol. (2008) [Pubmed]
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