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Effects of cardiotrophin on adipocytes.

Cardiotrophin ( CT-1) is a naturally occurring protein member of the interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine family and signals through the gp130/ leukemia inhibitory factor receptor ( LIFR) heterodimer. The formation of gp130/ LIFR complex triggers the auto/trans-phosphorylation of associated Janus kinases, leading to the activation of Janus kinase/STAT and MAPK ( ERK1 and -2) signaling pathways. Since adipocytes express both gp130 and LIFR proteins and are responsive to other IL-6 family cytokines, we examined the effects of CT-1 on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our studies have shown that CT-1 administration results in a dose- and time-dependent activation and nuclear translocation of STAT1, -3, -5A, and -5B as well as ERK1 and -2. We also confirmed the ability of CT-1 to induce signaling in fat cells in vivo. Our studies revealed that neither CT-1 nor ciliary neurotrophic factor treatment affected adipocyte differentiation. However, acute CT-1 treatment caused an increase in SOCS-3 mRNA in adipocytes and a transient decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) mRNA that was regulated by the binding of STAT1 to the PPARgamma2 promoter. The effects of CT-1 on SOCS-3 and PPARgamma mRNA were independent of MAPK activation. Chronic administration of CT-1 to 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in a decrease of both fatty acid synthase and insulin receptor substrate-1 protein expression yet did not effect the expression of a variety of other adipocyte proteins. Moreover, chronic CT-1 treatment resulted in the development of insulin resistance as judged by a decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In summary, CT-1 is a potent regulator of signaling in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo, and our current efforts are focused on determining the role of this cardioprotective cytokine on adipocyte physiology.[1]

References

  1. Effects of cardiotrophin on adipocytes. Zvonic, S., Hogan, J.C., Arbour-Reily, P., Mynatt, R.L., Stephens, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
 
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