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MeSH Review

Insulin Resistance

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Disease relevance of Insulin Resistance


Psychiatry related information on Insulin Resistance


High impact information on Insulin Resistance


Chemical compound and disease context of Insulin Resistance


Biological context of Insulin Resistance


Anatomical context of Insulin Resistance


Associations of Insulin Resistance with chemical compounds


Gene context of Insulin Resistance


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Insulin Resistance


  1. Variants of ENPP1 are associated with childhood and adult obesity and increase the risk of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. Meyre, D., Bouatia-Naji, N., Tounian, A., Samson, C., Lecoeur, C., Vatin, V., Ghoussaini, M., Wachter, C., Hercberg, S., Charpentier, G., Patsch, W., Pattou, F., Charles, M.A., Tounian, P., Clément, K., Jouret, B., Weill, J., Maddux, B.A., Goldfine, I.D., Walley, A., Boutin, P., Dina, C., Froguel, P. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Ovulatory and metabolic effects of D-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Nestler, J.E., Jakubowicz, D.J., Reamer, P., Gunn, R.D., Allan, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Seminars in Medicine of the Beth Israel Hospital, Boston. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus - a genetically programmed failure of the beta cell to compensate for insulin resistance. Polonsky, K.S., Sturis, J., Bell, G.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Glucose transporters and insulin action--implications for insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Shepherd, P.R., Kahn, B.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. FOXC2 is a winged helix gene that counteracts obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and diet-induced insulin resistance. Cederberg, A., Grønning, L.M., Ahrén, B., Taskén, K., Carlsson, P., Enerbäck, S. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Context-specific inhibition of JNKs: overcoming the dilemma of protection and damage. Waetzig, V., Herdegen, T. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Preventing non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Knowler, W.C., Narayan, K.M., Hanson, R.L., Nelson, R.G., Bennett, P.H., Tuomilehto, J., Scherstén, B., Pettitt, D.J. Diabetes (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Physical activity, physical fitness, and insulin and glucose concentrations in an isolated Native Canadian population experiencing rapid lifestyle change. Kriska, A.M., Hanley, A.J., Harris, S.B., Zinman, B. Diabetes Care (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Codon 54 polymorphism of the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 gene is associated with dyslipidemias but not with insulin resistance in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Pihlajamäki, J., Rissanen, J., Heikkinen, S., Karjalainen, L., Laakso, M. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Glucose metabolism in unipolar depression. Wright, J.H., Jacisin, J.J., Radin, N.S., Bell, R.A. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Transgenic rescue of defective Cd36 ameliorates insulin resistance in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pravenec, M., Landa, V., Zidek, V., Musilova, A., Kren, V., Kazdova, L., Aitman, T.J., Glazier, A.M., Ibrahimi, A., Abumrad, N.A., Qi, N., Wang, J.M., St Lezin, E.M., Kurtz, T.W. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Aberrant regulation of insulin receptor alternative splicing is associated with insulin resistance in myotonic dystrophy. Savkur, R.S., Philips, A.V., Cooper, T.A. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Lipodystrophy in the fld mouse results from mutation of a new gene encoding a nuclear protein, lipin. Péterfy, M., Phan, J., Xu, P., Reue, K. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Irs-2 coordinates Igf-1 receptor-mediated beta-cell development and peripheral insulin signalling. Withers, D.J., Burks, D.J., Towery, H.H., Altamuro, S.L., Flint, C.L., White, M.F. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of Cd36 (Fat) as an insulin-resistance gene causing defective fatty acid and glucose metabolism in hypertensive rats. Aitman, T.J., Glazier, A.M., Wallace, C.A., Cooper, L.D., Norsworthy, P.J., Wahid, F.N., Al-Majali, K.M., Trembling, P.M., Mann, C.J., Shoulders, C.C., Graf, D., St Lezin, E., Kurtz, T.W., Kren, V., Pravenec, M., Ibrahimi, A., Abumrad, N.A., Stanton, L.W., Scott, J. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. The molecular-genetic basis of functional hyperandrogenism and the polycystic ovary syndrome. Escobar-Morreale, H.F., Luque-Ramírez, M., San Millán, J.L. Endocr. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Metformin in the treatment of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Hadigan, C., Corcoran, C., Basgoz, N., Davis, B., Sax, P., Grinspoon, S. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Uric acid metabolism and tubular sodium handling. Results from a population-based study. Cappuccio, F.P., Strazzullo, P., Farinaro, E., Trevisan, M. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Insulin resistance associated with lower rates of weight gain in Pima Indians. Swinburn, B.A., Nyomba, B.L., Saad, M.F., Zurlo, F., Raz, I., Knowler, W.C., Lillioja, S., Bogardus, C., Ravussin, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Insulin resistance and vasodilation in essential hypertension. Studies with adenosine. Natali, A., Bonadonna, R., Santoro, D., Galvan, A.Q., Baldi, S., Frascerra, S., Palombo, C., Ghione, S., Ferrannini, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Racial differences in the relation between blood pressure and insulin resistance. Saad, M.F., Lillioja, S., Nyomba, B.L., Castillo, C., Ferraro, R., De Gregorio, M., Ravussin, E., Knowler, W.C., Bennett, P.H., Howard, B.V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Adipose-selective targeting of the GLUT4 gene impairs insulin action in muscle and liver. Abel, E.D., Peroni, O., Kim, J.K., Kim, Y.B., Boss, O., Hadro, E., Minnemann, T., Shulman, G.I., Kahn, B.B. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Leptin reverses insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in mice with congenital lipodystrophy. Shimomura, I., Hammer, R.E., Ikemoto, S., Brown, M.S., Goldstein, J.L. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Insulin resistance and the polycystic ovary syndrome: mechanism and implications for pathogenesis. Dunaif, A. Endocr. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. CVD risk factors and ethnicity--a homogeneous relationship? Forouhi, N.G., Sattar, N. Atherosclerosis. Supplements. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. IKK-beta links inflammation to obesity-induced insulin resistance. Arkan, M.C., Hevener, A.L., Greten, F.R., Maeda, S., Li, Z.W., Long, J.M., Wynshaw-Boris, A., Poli, G., Olefsky, J., Karin, M. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Reversal of obesity- and diet-induced insulin resistance with salicylates or targeted disruption of Ikkbeta. Yuan, M., Konstantopoulos, N., Lee, J., Hansen, L., Li, Z.W., Karin, M., Shoelson, S.E. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Skeletal muscle utilization of free fatty acids in women with visceral obesity. Colberg, S.R., Simoneau, J.A., Thaete, F.L., Kelley, D.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Impaired activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by insulin in fibroblasts from patients with severe insulin resistance and pseudoacromegaly. A disorder characterized by selective postreceptor insulin resistance. Dib, K., Whitehead, J.P., Humphreys, P.J., Soos, M.A., Baynes, K.C., Kumar, S., Harvey, T., O'Rahilly, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Early metabolic defects in persons at increased risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Eriksson, J., Franssila-Kallunki, A., Ekstrand, A., Saloranta, C., Widén, E., Schalin, C., Groop, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese subjects treated with troglitazone. Nolan, J.J., Ludvik, B., Beerdsen, P., Joyce, M., Olefsky, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Low urinary chiro-inositol excretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Kennington, A.S., Hill, C.R., Craig, J., Bogardus, C., Raz, I., Ortmeyer, H.K., Hansen, B.C., Romero, G., Larner, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. IRS-1-mediated inhibition of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity in TNF-alpha- and obesity-induced insulin resistance. Hotamisligil, G.S., Peraldi, P., Budavari, A., Ellis, R., White, M.F., Spiegelman, B.M. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Development of a novel polygenic model of NIDDM in mice heterozygous for IR and IRS-1 null alleles. Brüning, J.C., Winnay, J., Bonner-Weir, S., Taylor, S.I., Accili, D., Kahn, C.R. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects. Yamauchi, T., Kamon, J., Ito, Y., Tsuchida, A., Yokomizo, T., Kita, S., Sugiyama, T., Miyagishi, M., Hara, K., Tsunoda, M., Murakami, K., Ohteki, T., Uchida, S., Takekawa, S., Waki, H., Tsuno, N.H., Shibata, Y., Terauchi, Y., Froguel, P., Tobe, K., Koyasu, S., Taira, K., Kitamura, T., Shimizu, T., Nagai, R., Kadowaki, T. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Socs3 deficiency in the brain elevates leptin sensitivity and confers resistance to diet-induced obesity. Mori, H., Hanada, R., Hanada, T., Aki, D., Mashima, R., Nishinakamura, H., Torisu, T., Chien, K.R., Yasukawa, H., Yoshimura, A. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Diet-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking adiponectin/ACRP30. Maeda, N., Shimomura, I., Kishida, K., Nishizawa, H., Matsuda, M., Nagaretani, H., Furuyama, N., Kondo, H., Takahashi, M., Arita, Y., Komuro, R., Ouchi, N., Kihara, S., Tochino, Y., Okutomi, K., Horie, M., Takeda, S., Aoyama, T., Funahashi, T., Matsuzawa, Y. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Dexamethasone induction of hypertension and diabetes is PPAR-alpha dependent in LDL receptor-null mice. Bernal-Mizrachi, C., Weng, S., Feng, C., Finck, B.N., Knutsen, R.H., Leone, T.C., Coleman, T., Mecham, R.P., Kelly, D.P., Semenkovich, C.F. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and muscle of animal models of insulin resistance. Saad, M.J., Araki, E., Miralpeix, M., Rothenberg, P.L., White, M.F., Kahn, C.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Role of glucose transporters in the cellular insulin resistance of type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Garvey, W.T., Huecksteadt, T.P., Matthaei, S., Olefsky, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  41. Farnesoid X receptor is essential for normal glucose homeostasis. Ma, K., Saha, P.K., Chan, L., Moore, D.D. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  42. Effect of denervation on the expression of two glucose transporter isoforms in rat hindlimb muscle. Block, N.E., Menick, D.R., Robinson, K.A., Buse, M.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  43. Regulation of glucose homeostasis in humans with denervated livers. Perseghin, G., Regalia, E., Battezzati, A., Vergani, S., Pulvirenti, A., Terruzzi, I., Baratti, D., Bozzetti, F., Mazzaferro, V., Luzi, L. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
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