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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 

Movement and biological activity of drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in raised mulched beds in the southeastern USA.

Movement and biological activity of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin applied through drip irrigation in raised beds was investigated at three locations in the southeastern USA. Tests were conducted in fields with dense populations of nutsedge (Cyperus spp), with one location also having a high level of soil nematodes, both of which served as biological indicators of the distribution of effective concentrations of 1,3-D and chloropicrin. Objectives were (1) to gain a better understanding of 1,3-D and chloropicrin movement and the extent of biological activity outside of the wetted bed area, and (2) to examine the effect of application rate, application concentration and subsequent irrigation events on movement and activity of 1,3-D and chloropicrin. InLine, an emulsifiable concentrate containing 60.8% w/w 1,3-D and 33.3% w/w chloropicrin, was injected into polyethylene mulched beds through the drip tubes and water movement in the beds was visualized by adding a blue dye to the injection system. Gas concentrations of 1,3-D and chloropicrin in soil were measured using Gastec detection tubes at different positions relative to the drip tube at 1-4 days after InLine application. After one week, mulch was removed and nutsedge survival evaluated at different positions in the bed. High concentrations of 1,3-D and chloropicrin were measured at the bed center and midway between the bed center and the shoulder, but concentrations were low at the bed shoulder. Width of nutsedge control was significantly greater than width of water movement. Plant-parasitic nematodes were controlled over the entire bed width, but nutsedge re-emerged at the bed shoulders regardless of treatment. Higher application rates and concentrations of 1,3-D + chloropicrin resulted in higher fumigant concentrations in soil air. Irrigations subsequent to application reduced soil air concentrations of 1,3-D and chloropicrin and increased water movement, as did the use of two drip tubes instead of one. The data show that the pesticidal activity of 1,3-D + chloropicrin extends beyond the waterfront and indicate a significant degree of fumigant activity of emulsifiable 1,3-D + chloropicrin. However, unlike plant-parasitic nematodes, nutsedge could not be controlled over the entire bed width, regardless of rate, concentration and volume of water applied.[1]

References

  1. Movement and biological activity of drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in raised mulched beds in the southeastern USA. Desaeger, J.A., Eger, J.E., Csinos, A.S., Gilreath, J.P., Olson, S.M., Webster, T.M. Pest Manag. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
 
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