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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Irrigation


Psychiatry related information on Irrigation

  • RESULTS: Higher psychological stress assessed before the viral challenge was associated with greater symptom scores, greater mucus weights, and higher IL-6 lavage concentrations in response to infection [6].
  • Glutaraldehyde-fixed macrophages derived from healthy animals using standard lavage techniques exhibited a high affinity for the substrate and reaction times were thus relatively short (30-60 min) [7].

High impact information on Irrigation

  • KC was bound to shed syndecan-1, and it was not detected in the lavage of syndecan-1 null mice [8].
  • We monitored their responses by means of symptom scores and measurements of the levels of histamine, tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (TAME)-esterase activity, and kinins in nasal lavages [9].
  • The lavage fluid was analyzed for products of arachidonic acid metabolism [10].
  • Levels of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, which may also have a role in the pulmonary allergic response, were detectable in lavage fluid before challenge and increased after provocation with the antigen in four of the five patients [10].
  • Hyperoxia for an average of 17 hours did not change the total number or type of lung inflammatory and immune effector cells recovered by lavage (P greater than 0.05, all comparisons) [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Irrigation


Biological context of Irrigation

  • We performed HPV testing of cervicovaginal lavage specimens by gene amplification using polymerase chain reaction with a consensus primer to target the L1 gene region of HPV [16].
  • Gabexate injections without lavage had a slight effect on survival and serum amylase concentration and very little effect on histology [13].
  • We conclude that SP-A is a major microbial permeablizing factor in lavage fluid and that oxidative stress inhibits the antibacterial activity of SP-A by a mechanism that includes oxidative modification and functional inactivation of the protein [17].
  • Tunicamycin, which blocks N-linked protein glycosylation, resulted in synthesis of three major 26,000-dalton proteins which co-migrated with the nonglycosylated, surfactant-associated proteins A1 present in surfactant from alveolar lavage and with the major in vitro translation products of rat lung poly(A+) mRNA [18].
  • Mice heterozygous for the J chain deletion exhibited intermediate gut lavage anti-CT IgA and intestinal protection levels, arguing for a J chain gene-dosage effect on the transport of secretory IgA [19].

Anatomical context of Irrigation


Associations of Irrigation with chemical compounds

  • Consistent with this, lavage fluid from the airways of allergen-challenged dogs stimulated mucin synthesis severalfold more potently than that from non-allergen-challenged dogs [25].
  • Compared with the NaCl instillation, LTB4 caused a large increase in lavage total cells (NaCl = 6.8 +/- 1.0 X 10(6) vs. LTB4 = 26.4 +/- 5.0 X 10(6), P less than 0.01), most of which were PMN (NaCl = 12.2 +/- 4.6% vs. LTB4 = 55.7 +/- 6.0%, P less than 0.001) [26].
  • The DIMIT effects on both choline incorporation by lung minces and phospholipid content of lavage fluid were substantially greater than what had occurred with an optimal dose of betamethasone [27].
  • In addition, the amount of fibronectin was significantly increased in lavage of C5 fragment-treated normal but not neutropenic animals [28].
  • I found that pilocarpine stimulates the release of radioactive protein into the lavage surface-active fraction of rabbits and that this pilocarpine effect is completely blocked by atropine [29].

Gene context of Irrigation

  • Studies aerosolizing recombinant SLPI (rSLPI) to sheep demonstrated that in the short term, neither aerosolization and alveolar deposition nor the lavage procedure inactivated the SLPI molecule [30].
  • Quantities of TNF-alpha, MIP-2, KC, or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 recovered from bronchial alveolar lavage or serum were not changed [31].
  • In contrast, lavage TNF-alpha, IL-8, and GRO increased over 24 h in animals that failed to clear intrapulmonary bacteria [32].
  • In the lavage fluid of patients with asthma, there were also increased amounts of interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-beta) (p less than 0.025), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p less than 0.025), and granulocyte-macrophage, colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (p less than 0.05), as compared with lavage fluid of normal control subjects [33].
  • The levels of eotaxin in lavage samples showed strong correlation with lavage levels of eosinophil counts and EPX [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Irrigation

  • HPV DNA was detected in cervicovaginal lavage by means of polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting [35].
  • The efficacy and safety of the new colonic lavage solution, Golytely (an electrolyte-polyethylene glycol solution), was compared with standard 2- and 3-day bowel preparations in a randomized blinded study of patients undergoing colonoscopy and barium enema examination [36].
  • Heparin affinity, gel filtration, and Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of PDGF in lavage fluid [37].
  • This effect was demonstrable by using human neutrophil elastase as well as porcine pancreatic elastase as test enzyme (elastase, EC and was reproducible when selected individuals in each group underwent lavage on repeated occasions [38].
  • Peritoneal lavage after eight hours showed a significant decrease in the accumulation of PMN in lavage fluids of animals given either Fluosol or Pluronic (control--.19 +/- .03 X 10(6) PMN/mL, glycogen--1.35 +/- .14; glycogen/Fluosol--0.63 +/- .12; glycogen/Pluronic--0.69 +/- .07) [39].


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  13. Therapeutic regimens in acute experimental hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Effects of hydration, oxygenation, peritoneal lavage, and a potent protease inhibitor. Niederau, C., Crass, R.A., Silver, G., Ferrell, L.D., Grendell, J.H. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. A tuberculostearic acid assay in the diagnosis of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. A prospective study of bronchoscopic aspirate and lavage specimens. Pang, J.A., Chan, H.S., Chan, C.Y., Cheung, S.W., French, G.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Assessment of bleomycin lung toxicity using angiotensin-converting enzyme in pulmonary lavage. Newman, R.A., Kimberly, P.J., Stewart, J.A., Kelley, J. Cancer Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Epidemiologic evidence showing that human papillomavirus infection causes most cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Schiffman, M.H., Bauer, H.M., Hoover, R.N., Glass, A.G., Cadell, D.M., Rush, B.B., Scott, D.R., Sherman, M.E., Kurman, R.J., Wacholder, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Surfactant protein A is a principal and oxidation-sensitive microbial permeabilizing factor in the alveolar lining fluid. Kuzmenko, A.I., Wu, H., Wan, S., McCormack, F.X. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Glycosylation and secretion of surfactant-associated glycoprotein A. Whitsett, J.A., Ross, G., Weaver, T., Rice, W., Dion, C., Hull, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Lack of J chain inhibits the transport of gut IgA and abrogates the development of intestinal antitoxic protection. Lycke, N., Erlandsson, L., Ekman, L., Schön, K., Leanderson, T. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Origin, Kinetics, and characteristics of pulmonary macrophages in the normal steady state. van oud Alblas, A.B., van Furth, R. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Additive effect of intravascular complement activation and brief episodes of hypoxia in producing increased permeability in the rabbit lung. Larsen, G.L., Webster, R.O., Worthen, G.S., Gumbay, R.S., Henson, P.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. A cholecystokinin-releasing factor mediates ethanol-induced stimulation of rat pancreatic secretion. Saluja, A.K., Lu, L., Yamaguchi, Y., Hofbauer, B., Rünzi, M., Dawra, R., Bhatia, M., Steer, M.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
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  25. Allergen-induced IL-9 directly stimulates mucin transcription in respiratory epithelial cells. Longphre, M., Li, D., Gallup, M., Drori, E., Ordoñez, C.L., Redman, T., Wenzel, S., Bice, D.E., Fahy, J.V., Basbaum, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
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  27. Transplacental stimulation of lung development in the fetal rabbit by 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine. Ballard, P.L., Benson, B.J., Brehier, A., Carter, J.P., Kriz, B.M., Jorgensen, E.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Fibronectin fragments containing the RGDS cell-binding domain mediate monocyte migration into the rabbit lung. A potential mechanism for C5 fragment-induced monocyte lung accumulation. Doherty, D.E., Henson, P.M., Clark, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
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  30. Anti-neutrophil elastase defense of the normal human respiratory epithelial surface provided by the secretory leukoprotease inhibitor. Vogelmeier, C., Hubbard, R.C., Fells, G.A., Schnebli, H.P., Thompson, R.C., Fritz, H., Crystal, R.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Selective suppression of neutrophil accumulation in ongoing pulmonary inflammation by systemic inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Nick, J.A., Young, S.K., Arndt, P.G., Lieber, J.G., Suratt, B.T., Poch, K.R., Avdi, N.J., Malcolm, K.C., Taube, C., Henson, P.M., Worthen, G.S. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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  34. The kinetics of allergen-induced eotaxin level in nasal lavage fluid: its key role in eosinophil recruitment in nasal mucosa. Terada, N., Hamano, N., Kim, W.J., Hirai, K., Nakajima, T., Yamada, H., Kawasaki, H., Yamashita, T., Kishi, H., Nomura, T., Numata, T., Yoshie, O., Konno, A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Lymphoproliferative responses to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 proteins E6 and E7: outcome of HPV infection and associated neoplasia. Kadish, A.S., Ho, G.Y., Burk, R.D., Wang, Y., Romney, S.L., Ledwidge, R., Angeletti, R.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
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