The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Metabolism of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in mice.

The metabolism of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), a heterocyclic amine carcinogen detected in cooked meats, was investigated in mice. In 3-methylcholanthrene-induced mice administered 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/kg [14C]PhIP (i.p.), urinary and fecal excretion over 24 h accounted for 16% and 42-56% of the dose respectively. Urinary excretion of unchanged parent compound accounted for only 0.5-0.8% of the administered dose. At all doses, the major urinary metabolite was identified as 4'-(2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyrid-6-yl)phenyl sulfate and this metabolite comprised approximately 5% of the dose. Uninduced mice excreted greater than 13% of a 10 mg/kg dose as the sulfate conjugate. Urinary excretion of both 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(4'-hydroxy)-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (4'-hydroxy-PhIP) and a glucuronide conjugate of 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-hydroxy-PhIP) was also higher (4-fold) in uninduced versus induced mice. The decreased urinary excretion of P450-derived metabolites via induction contrasted with increased metabolite formation by hepatic microsomal preparations. 4'-Hydroxy-PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP were produced in amounts nearly 7- and 3-fold higher respectively by induced versus uninduced microsomal incubations at 50 microM [3H]PhIP. At concentrations less than 10 microM, PhIP was almost exclusively converted by the induced preparations to an unidentified metabolite that was not retained by the C18 column. This metabolite, which also was formed in incubations with either 4'-hydroxy-PhIP or N-hydroxy-PhIP, was produced by microsomes from uninduced animals at a much slower rate. Covalent binding to microsomal protein in incubations with [3H]PhIP was concentration-dependent and 2- to 4-fold higher in induced than uninduced preparations. Covalent binding in liver and kidney of induced mice administered [14C]PhIP was dose dependent. At 10 mg/kg PhIP, adducts were produced at 1.7-fold higher levels in livers of induced versus uninduced mice, but renal binding was higher in uninduced animals. These studies indicate the importance of cytochrome P450 and other xenobiotic enzymes in the metabolism, disposition and activation of PhIP.[1]


  1. Metabolism of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in mice. Buonarati, M.H., Roper, M., Morris, C.J., Happe, J.A., Knize, M.G., Felton, J.S. Carcinogenesis (1992) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities