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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Nuclear localization of the Nipah virus W protein allows for inhibition of both virus- and toll-like receptor 3-triggered signaling pathways.

The Nipah virus V and W proteins, which are encoded by the P gene via RNA editing, have a common N-terminal domain but unique C-terminal domains. They localize to the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively, and have both been shown to function as inhibitors of JAK/STAT signaling. Here we report that V and W proteins also block virus activation of the beta interferon (IFN-beta) promoter and the IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-responsive IFN-stimulated gene 54 promoter. Surprisingly, only W protein shows strong inhibition of promoter activation in response to stimulation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) by extracellular double-stranded RNA. This activity is dependent on the nuclear localization of W protein. Within the unique C-terminal domain of W protein, we have identified a nuclear localization signal (NLS) that requires basic residues at positions 439, 440, and 442. This NLS is responsible for mediating the preferential interaction of W protein with karyopherin-alpha 3 and karyopherin-alpha 4. Nuclear localization of W protein therefore enables it to target both virus and TLR3 pathways, whereas the cytoplasmic V protein is restricted to inhibiting the virus pathway. We propose that this discrepancy is in part due to the V protein being less able to block signaling in response to the kinase, TBK-1, whereas both V and W can prevent promoter activation in response to IKKepsilon. We demonstrate that, when the TLR3 pathway is stimulated, the levels of phosphorylated IRF3 are reduced in the presence of W protein but not V protein, confirming the differential effects of these proteins and illustrating that W protein-mediated inhibition is due to a loss of active IRF3.[1]


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