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MeSH Review

RNA Editing

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Disease relevance of RNA Editing


Psychiatry related information on RNA Editing


High impact information on RNA Editing

  • RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA [8].
  • A functionally critical position (Q/R site) of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR-B is controlled by RNA editing that operates in the nucleus, since in brain and clonal cell lines of neural origin, unspliced GluR-B transcripts occur edited in the Q/R site CAG codon and, additionally, in intronic adenosines [9].
  • RNA editing occurs at sites asymmetrically distributed along the wheat nad1 coding region, and the initiation codon is created by RNA editing [10].
  • RNA editing in brain controls a determinant of ion flow in glutamate-gated channels [11].
  • Two RNA editing events in the trans-splicing intron a/b improve conservation of the secondary structure in the stem of domain VI [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of RNA Editing


Biological context of RNA Editing


Anatomical [21] context of RNA Editing


Associations of RNA Editing with chemical compounds

  • Here we show that transcripts encoding the 2C subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT(2C)R) undergo RNA editing events in which genomically encoded adenosine residues are converted to inosines by the action of double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase(s) [26].
  • Examples of RNA editing (see ref. 2 for review) include the insertion and deletion of uridine residues in mitochondrial messenger RNAs in kinetoplastid protozoa, the conversion of a cytidine to uridine in mammalian apolipoprotein-B mRNA, and the appearance of two non-templated guanosine residues in a paramyxovirus transcript [27].
  • Glutamate receptor RNA editing in vitro by enzymatic conversion of adenosine to inosine [28].
  • RNA editing: a mechanism for gRNA-specified uridylate insertion into precursor mRNA [29].
  • The mutant was significantly more cytotoxic than wild-type virus, indicating that cytotoxicity caused by GP is down-regulated by the virus through transcriptional RNA editing and expression of sGP [30].

Gene context of RNA Editing


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RNA Editing






  1. ADAR2-dependent RNA editing of AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 determines vulnerability of neurons in forebrain ischemia. Peng, P.L., Zhong, X., Tu, W., Soundarapandian, M.M., Molner, P., Zhu, D., Lau, L., Liu, S., Liu, F., Lu, Y. Neuron (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Structural requirements for RNA editing in hepatitis delta virus: evidence for a uridine-to-cytidine editing mechanism. Casey, J.L., Bergmann, K.F., Brown, T.L., Gerin, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Bacteriophage T4 RNA ligase 2 (gp24.1) exemplifies a family of RNA ligases found in all phylogenetic domains. Ho, C.K., Shuman, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. RNA-editing cytidine deaminase Apobec-1 is unable to induce somatic hypermutation in mammalian cells. Eto, T., Kinoshita, K., Yoshikawa, K., Muramatsu, M., Honjo, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduction of GluR2 RNA editing, a molecular change that increases calcium influx through AMPA receptors, selective in the spinal ventral gray of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Takuma, H., Kwak, S., Yoshizawa, T., Kanazawa, I. Ann. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Control of rat GluR6 glutamate receptor open probability by protein kinase A and calcineurin. Traynelis, S.F., Wahl, P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. RNA editing of serotonin 2C receptor in human postmortem brains of major mental disorders. Iwamoto, K., Kato, T. Neurosci. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA. Bass, B.L. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. RNA editing of AMPA receptor subunit GluR-B: a base-paired intron-exon structure determines position and efficiency. Higuchi, M., Single, F.N., Köhler, M., Sommer, B., Sprengel, R., Seeburg, P.H. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. The wheat mitochondrial gene for subunit I of the NADH dehydrogenase complex: a trans-splicing model for this gene-in-pieces. Chapdelaine, Y., Bonen, L. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. RNA editing in brain controls a determinant of ion flow in glutamate-gated channels. Sommer, B., Köhler, M., Sprengel, R., Seeburg, P.H. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Trans splicing in Oenothera mitochondria: nad1 mRNAs are edited in exon and trans-splicing group II intron sequences. Wissinger, B., Schuster, W., Brennicke, A. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. RNA editing of glutamate receptor subunits GluR2, GluR5 and GluR6 in transient cerebral ischemia in the rat. Paschen, W., Schmitt, J., Uto, A. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Adenovirus VAI RNA antagonizes the RNA-editing activity of the ADAR adenosine deaminase. Lei, M., Liu, Y., Samuel, C.E. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Editing of kinetoplastid mitochondrial mRNAs by uridine addition and deletion generates conserved amino acid sequences and AUG initiation codons. Shaw, J.M., Feagin, J.E., Stuart, K., Simpson, L. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular cloning of an apolipoprotein B messenger RNA editing protein. Teng, B., Burant, C.F., Davidson, N.O. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. DNA double-strand breaks: prior to but not sufficient in targeting hypermutation. Bross, L., Muramatsu, M., Kinoshita, K., Honjo, T., Jacobs, H. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of the wheat mitochondrial nad3-rps12 transcription unit: correlation between editing and mRNA maturation. Gualberto, J.M., Bonnard, G., Lamattina, L., Grienenberger, J.M. Plant Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Polyadenylation occurs at multiple sites in maize mitochondrial cox2 mRNA and is independent of editing status. Lupold, D.S., Caoile, A.G., Stern, D.B. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Letter from the editor: Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in Alu repeats in the human genome. Levanon, K., Eisenberg, E., Rechavi, G., Levanon, E.Y. EMBO. Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Genome-wide identification of human RNA editing sites by parallel DNA capturing and sequencing. Li, J.B., Levanon, E.Y., Yoon, J.K., Aach, J., Xie, B., Leproust, E., Zhang, K., Gao, Y., Church, G.M. Science. (2009) [Pubmed]
  22. Extraplastidic site-specific factors mediate RNA editing in chloroplasts. Bock, R., Koop, H.U. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Specific expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a novel member of the RNA-editing deaminase family in germinal center B cells. Muramatsu, M., Sankaranand, V.S., Anant, S., Sugai, M., Kinoshita, K., Davidson, N.O., Honjo, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Splicing and intron-internal RNA editing of trnK-matK transcripts in barley plastids: support for MatK as an essential splice factor. Vogel, J., Hübschmann, T., Börner, T., Hess, W.R. J. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Intestinal lipoprotein assembly in apobec-1-/- mice reveals subtle alterations in triglyceride secretion coupled with a shift to larger lipoproteins. Xie, Y., Nassir, F., Luo, J., Buhman, K., Davidson, N.O. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulation of serotonin-2C receptor G-protein coupling by RNA editing. Burns, C.M., Chu, H., Rueter, S.M., Hutchinson, L.K., Canton, H., Sanders-Bush, E., Emeson, R.B. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. RNA editing in plant mitochondria. Covello, P.S., Gray, M.W. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Glutamate receptor RNA editing in vitro by enzymatic conversion of adenosine to inosine. Rueter, S.M., Burns, C.M., Coode, S.A., Mookherjee, P., Emeson, R.B. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. RNA editing: a mechanism for gRNA-specified uridylate insertion into precursor mRNA. Kable, M.L., Seiwert, S.D., Heidmann, S., Stuart, K. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Recovery of infectious Ebola virus from complementary DNA: RNA editing of the GP gene and viral cytotoxicity. Volchkov, V.E., Volchkova, V.A., Muhlberger, E., Kolesnikova, L.V., Weik, M., Dolnik, O., Klenk, H.D. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. The mle(napts) RNA helicase mutation in drosophila results in a splicing catastrophe of the para Na+ channel transcript in a region of RNA editing. Reenan, R.A., Hanrahan, C.J., Barry, G. Neuron (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. RNA editing activity is associated with splicing factors in lnRNP particles: The nuclear pre-mRNA processing machinery. Raitskin, O., Cho, D.S., Sperling, J., Nishikura, K., Sperling, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Identification of GRY-RBP as an apolipoprotein B RNA-binding protein that interacts with both apobec-1 and apobec-1 complementation factor to modulate C to U editing. Blanc, V., Navaratnam, N., Henderson, J.O., Anant, S., Kennedy, S., Jarmuz, A., Scott, J., Davidson, N.O. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Novel role for RNA-binding protein CUGBP2 in mammalian RNA editing. CUGBP2 modulates C to U editing of apolipoprotein B mRNA by interacting with apobec-1 and ACF, the apobec-1 complementation factor. Anant, S., Henderson, J.O., Mukhopadhyay, D., Navaratnam, N., Kennedy, S., Min, J., Davidson, N.O. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Cloning of an Apobec-1-binding protein that also interacts with apolipoprotein B mRNA and evidence for its involvement in RNA editing. Lau, P.P., Zhu, H.J., Nakamuta, M., Chan, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Reconstitution of uridine-deletion precleaved RNA editing with two recombinant enzymes. Kang, X., Rogers, K., Gao, G., Falick, A.M., Zhou, S., Simpson, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. RNA editing status of nad7 intron domains in wheat mitochondria. Carrillo, C., Bonen, L. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. PairWise and SearchWise: finding the optimal alignment in a simultaneous comparison of a protein profile against all DNA translation frames. Birney, E., Thompson, J.D., Gibson, T.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor RNA editing alters receptor basal activity: implications for serotonergic signal transduction. Herrick-Davis, K., Grinde, E., Niswender, C.M. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
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