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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Virus Activation

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Disease relevance of Virus Activation


High impact information on Virus Activation


Biological context of Virus Activation


Anatomical context of Virus Activation


Associations of Virus Activation with chemical compounds

  • Enhancement of 5-iododeoxyuridine-induced endogenous C-type virus activation by polycyclic hydrocarbons: apparent lack of parallelism between enhancement and carcinogenicity [20].
  • These findings suggest that multiple injections of streptozotocin induce, in susceptible hosts, the triad of direct beta cell cytotoxicity, virus induction within beta cells, and cell-mediated autoimmune reaction [21].
  • Cell cycle-specific enhancement of type C virus activation by sodium n-butyrate [22].
  • During the time cells were exposed to these compounds, there was little inhibition of [3H]uridine incorporation into total cellular RNA or polyadenylic acid cytoplasmic messenger RNA, suggesting that inhibition of proteolysis, and not RNA transcription, was responsible for blocking virus induction [23].
  • The high frequency of induction by 5-azacytidine, relative to other nucleoside analogs, and the absence of induction by other mutagens further indicate that endogenous virus induction occurs via nonmutagenic mechanisms and that some mutagens may also affect regulatory functions independent of their mutagenic action [24].

Gene context of Virus Activation


  1. A procedure for culture of cells from mouse tail biopsies: brief communication. Lander, M.R., Moll, B., Rowe, W.P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Studies on virus induction by 5-bromodeoxyuridine in nonproducer murine sarcoma virus-transformed 3T3 cells. Margalith, M., Thornton, H., Narconis, R., Pinkerton, H., Green, M. Virology (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Induction of prophage lambda by chlorophenols. DeMarini, D.M., Brooks, H.G., Parkes, D.G. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Immune restoration by combination of a cytostatic drug (hydroxyurea) and anti-HIV drugs (didanosine and indinavir). Lori, F., Jessen, H., Lieberman, J., Clerici, M., Tinelli, C., Lisziewicz, J. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Failure of 5-bromodeoxyuridine to influence the activation of latent herpex simplex virus infection in explants of the rabbit regional sensory ganglia. Rajcáni, J. Acta Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Reversal of intrinsic DNA bends in the IFN beta gene enhancer by transcription factors and the architectural protein HMG I(Y). Falvo, J.V., Thanos, D., Maniatis, T. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. The high mobility group protein HMG I(Y) is required for NF-kappa B-dependent virus induction of the human IFN-beta gene. Thanos, D., Maniatis, T. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Chromosomal position and activation of retroviral genomes inserted into the germ line of mice. Jaenisch, R., Jähner, D., Nobis, P., Simon, I., Löhler, J., Harbers, K., Grotkopp, D. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification and characterization of a novel repressor of beta-interferon gene expression. Keller, A.D., Maniatis, T. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Endogenous retrovirus expression in stimulated murine lymphocytes. Identification of a new locus controlling mitogen induction of a defective virus. Stoye, J.P., Moroni, C. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. An ATF/CREB binding site is required for virus induction of the human interferon beta gene [corrected]. Du, W., Maniatis, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Differentiation and virus expression in BALB/Mo mice: endogenous Moloney leukemia virus is not activated in hematopoietic cells. Fiedler, W., Nobis, P., Jähner, D., Jaenisch, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Complexity and abundance of murine leukemia virus-related nuclear and messenger RNA sequences in mouse embryo cell lines which are differentially sensitive to carcinogen-induced virus activation. Getz, M.J., Elder, P.K., Moses, H.L. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Genes of the H-2 complex regulate the antibody response to murine leukemia virus. Vlug, A., Schoenmakers, H.J., Melief, C.J. J. Immunol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Primate retroviruses: immunological cross-reactivity between major structural proteins of new and old world primate virus isolates. Devare, S.G., Arthur, L.O., Fine, D.L., Stephenson, J.R. J. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Chromosomal mapping of the mink cell focus-inducing and xenotropic env gene family in the mouse. Blatt, C., Mileham, K., Haas, M., Nesbitt, M.N., Harper, M.E., Simon, M.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Interferon system defects in human malignant melanoma. Linge, C., Gewert, D., Rossmann, C., Bishop, J.A., Crowe, J.S. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Constitutive and virus-induced interferon production by peripheral blood leukocytes. Greenway, A.L., Hertzog, P.J., Devenish, R.J., Linnane, A.W. Exp. Hematol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Amino acid analogs inhibit murine xenotropic retrovirus expression and cell cycle progression. Suk, W.R., Snead, R.M., Long, C.W. In vitro. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Enhancement of 5-iododeoxyuridine-induced endogenous C-type virus activation by polycyclic hydrocarbons: apparent lack of parallelism between enhancement and carcinogenicity. Yoshikura, H., Zajdela, F., Perin, F., Perin-Roussel, O., Jacquignon, P., Latarjet, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Studies of streptozotocin-induced insulitis and diabetes. Rossini, A.A., Like, A.A., Chick, W.L., Appel, M.C., Cahill, G.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Cell cycle-specific enhancement of type C virus activation by sodium n-butyrate. Long, C.W., Suk, W.A., Snead, R.M., Christensen, W.L. Cancer Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of protease inhibitors on chemical induction of type C virus. Long, C.W., Bruszewski, J.A., Christensen, W.L., Suk, W.A. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Induction of retrovirus gene expression in mouse cells by some chemical mutagens. Tennant, R.W., Otten, J.A., Myer, F.E., Rascati, R.J. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. PRDI-BF1/Blimp-1 repression is mediated by corepressors of the Groucho family of proteins. Ren, B., Chee, K.J., Kim, T.H., Maniatis, T. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Caspase inhibition activates HIV in latently infected cells. Role of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and CD95. Scheller, C., Sopper, S., Chen, P., Flory, E., Koutsilieri, E., Racek, T., Ludwig, S., ter Meulen, V., Jassoy, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Nuclear localization of the Nipah virus W protein allows for inhibition of both virus- and toll-like receptor 3-triggered signaling pathways. Shaw, M.L., Cardenas, W.B., Zamarin, D., Palese, P., Basler, C.F. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Tandem repeat polymers of a critical region of the human interferon-beta promoter exhibit a marked constitutive activity and enhanced responsiveness to transcriptional regulators in transfected HeLa cells. Dron, M., Rebouillat, D., Tovey, M.G. J. Interferon Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
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