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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Toxicity of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

The effects of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on the survival, behavior, and morphology of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in water at pH 6, 7, and 8 and their toxicity in 10 different soils and an organic substrate have been assessed. A decrease in the pH of water resulted in increased toxicity of Cr to the earthworm. In water, both Cr species produced behavioral changes and morphological symptoms. The 48-h LC(50) values of Cr(III) at pH 6, 7, and 8 were 1.93, 2.55, and 2.78 mg/L, and those of Cr(VI) were 0.47, 0.61, and 0.63 mg/L, respectively. The 14-day median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) for earthworm range from 1656 to 1902 mg/kg for Cr(III) and from 222 to 257 mg/kg for Cr(VI) in soil. In the organic substrate, the LC(50) values of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 1635 and 219 mg/kg, respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis predicted that clay content of soils accounted for 92% and 88% of the variation in the LC(50) values of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively.[1]


  1. Toxicity of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Sivakumar, S., Subbhuraam, C.V. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2005) [Pubmed]
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