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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Monitoring of the booster biocide dichlofluanid in water and marine sediment of Greek marinas.

Dichlofluanid (N-dichlorofluoromethylthio-N'-dimethyl-N-phenylsulphamide) is used as booster biocide in antifouling paints. The occurrence of dichlofluanid and its metabolite DMSA (N'-dimethyl-N-phenyl-sulphamide) was monitored in seawater and marine sediment from three Greek marinas. Seawater and sediment samples were collected at three representative positions and one suspected hotspot in each marina and shipped to the laboratory for chemical analysis. As part of the project, an analytical method had been developed and validated. Furthermore, some additional experiments were carried out to investigate the potential contribution of paint particle bound dichlofluanid on the total concentration in the sediment. As expected, given its known high hydrolytic degradation rate, no detectable concentrations of dichlofluanid were measured in any of the seawater samples. DMSA was detected in seawater samples at very low concentrations varying from <3 ng l(-1) (LOD) to 36 ng l(-1). During method validation, it had already been demonstrated that dichlofluanid is unstable in sediment and can therefore only be determined as its metabolite DMSA. In a separate experiment, in which marine sediment was spiked with artificial paint particles containing dichlofluanid and then analysed according to the validated method, it was demonstrated that if there is any dichlofluanid originating from paint particles, this would be determined as DMSA. No DMSA was detected in any of the sediment samples. It could therefore be concluded that there were no significant concentrations of dichlofluanid in the sediment samples.[1]


  1. Monitoring of the booster biocide dichlofluanid in water and marine sediment of Greek marinas. Hamwijk, C., Schouten, A., Foekema, E.M., Ravensberg, J.C., Collombon, M.T., Schmidt, K., Kugler, M. Chemosphere (2005) [Pubmed]
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