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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Seawater


High impact information on Seawater

  • To elucidate this interdependence, we performed high-frequency sampling of sea water along a north-south transect of the Atlantic Ocean [6].
  • As a useful proxy, the oxygen isotope composition (delta18O) of calcite from planktonic foraminifera has been shown to reflect both surface temperature and seawater delta18O, itself an indicator of global ice volume and salinity [7].
  • Nevertheless, ATP depletion or vanadate treatment of high [Ca2+]i fibres causes an approximately 50-fold increase of Ca2+ efflux into Ca2+-containing lithium seawater [8].
  • The data suggest that seawater had high Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios (>2.5) and relatively high Na+ concentrations during the Late Precambrian [544 to 543 million years ago (Ma)], Permian (258 to 251 Ma), and Tertiary through the present (40 to 0 Ma), when aragonite and MgSO4 salts were the dominant marine precipitates [9].
  • The sedimentary sulfur isotope record suggests low concentrations of seawater sulfate and atmospheric oxygen in the early Archean (3.4 to 2.8 billion years ago) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Seawater

  • The depolarization-induced K conductance was found to disappear when Ca ions were removed from the sea water bathing the ganglion or when the cell was injected with the Ca chelator ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)N,N'-tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) [11].
  • Poliovirus (6.6 to 330,000 virus particles/ml) was added to samples from watersheds in Los Angeles, California, and analysis showed that with 50-ml samples, a cellulose acetate/nitrate (HA) filter yielded final recovery of 51% (r2= 0.99) in fresh water and 23% (r2= 0.90) in seawater [12].
  • When E. coli was cultivated in sediment diluted with minimal medium M63 at 0.6 M NaCl, supplemented or not supplemented with glucose or with seawater, the osmoprotector glycine betaine was accumulated in the cells [13].
  • Accumulation of glycine betaine was not observed with E. coli was grown in sterile seawater alone [13].
  • Vibrio cholerae O139 strains were resistant to infection and highest infection rates were obtained in low nutrient media amended with NaCl or prepared using seawater as diluent [14].

Biological context of Seawater

  • Here we report that nitrogen fixation rates in the central Atlantic appear to be independent of both dissolved iron levels in sea water and iron content in Trichodesmium colonies [15].
  • Atriopeptin is known to inhibit the production and effects of angiotensin II in mammals, and since this hormone is apparently dipsogenic in fishes, it may play a critical role in osmoregulation in sea water [16].
  • Thus, the algae calcified as if they were simply inducing precipitation from seawater through their consumption of CO(2) for photosynthesis; presumably organic templates specify the calcite crystal structure of their skeletons [17].
  • In the cell-attached patch recordings of Ip-2 cells, external artificial seawater (ASW) was replaced with a modified ASW containing 150 mM K(+) and 200 mM Mg(2+) to suppress any synaptic input and to maintain the membrane potential constant [18].
  • If fertilized eggs are placed in seawater containing 10 mM caffeine at prometaphase, the spindle rapidly shrinks, moving the mitotic centers to the middle of the metaphase plate in less than 10 min [19].

Anatomical context of Seawater

  • When Arbacia punctulata spermatozoa are incubated in seawater containing ammonium hydroxide (pH 8.8), the sperm plasma membrane-bound guanylate cyclase is dephosphorylated, its electrophoretic mobility increases (from an apparent molecular mass of 160 to 150 kD), and its enzymatic activity decreases 3.5-fold [20].
  • When the mAb treatment which induced an increase in [Ca2+]i was combined with an NH4Cl treatment, which increased the pHi, the acrosome reaction was induced. mAb-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were dependent on millimolar concentrations of extracellular Ca2+ and were reversed by placing sperm in Ca2+-free seawater or by chelating Ca2+ with EGTA [21].
  • Immediately after spawning into seawater, activation of Na+/H+ antiporters via a heterotrimeric G protein coupling to a 1-methyladenine receptor in the oocyte leads to an intracellular pH increase that can overcome the MI arrest even in the presence of active MAP kinase [22].
  • Activation of unfertilized eggs by sperm or by ionophore A-23187 in seawater results in complete development of these transport systems [23].
  • We also assessed leucine incorporation during incubation of eggs and zygotes in sodium-free sea water or sea water containing amiloride, two additional treatments that block the pHi rise [24].

Associations of Seawater with chemical compounds

  • Our results indicate that today's stratification between Labrador Sea Water and North Atlantic Deep Water never developed during the last interglacial period [25].
  • When isolated, mounted as a membrane, and short-circuited, it actively transports chloride ions from the blood side to the seawater side of the preparation [26].
  • Sperm treated with the divalent-cation ionophore A23187 swim quite normally, although for a relatively short period, in artificial seawater lacking divalent cations, but are abruptly arrested upon addition of 0.04--0.2 mM free Ca2% [27].
  • Thyone sperm were induced to undergo the acrosomal reaction with a calcium ionophore A23187 in sea water containing 50 mM excess CaCl2, and the extension of the acrosomal process was recorded with high-resolution, differential interference contrast video microscopy at 60 fields/sec [28].
  • L. pictus sperm concentrate 65Zn+2 from seawater, and EDTA removes 50% of the accumulated 65Zn+2 by 5 min [29].

Gene context of Seawater

  • MAPK was rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated (within 1-2 min) in response to exposure of the oocytes either to natural seawater (the normal trigger of GVBD in this organism) or to the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), which can also elicit GVBD [30].
  • We compared the viabilities (direct viable counts) and culturabilities (colony counts) in seawater of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains and those in which rpoS was deleted or which were deficient in guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp) synthesis (relA spoT) [31].
  • Both antisera crossreacted and were used to localize CA in the gills of seawater and freshwater flounders at the light microscopic level [32].
  • In freshwater, CFTR immunoreactivity was light and occurred over a broad apical surface on chloride cells, whereas in seawater there was intense immunoreactivity around the apical pit (which was often punctate in appearance) and a light subapical staining [33].
  • Reduction of chemokine IL-8 and RANTES expression in human bronchial epithelial cells by a sea-water derived saline through inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB activation [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Seawater

  • We describe a combination of selected ions as a terminating ion which is useful for transient isotachophoresis (ITP) in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater [35].
  • At low rates of glomerular filtration in seawater fish, NaCl-coupled water secretion serves to increase the renal excretory capacity by increasing the luminal volume into which waste, excess, and toxic solutes can be secreted [36].
  • The ability to separate nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives in seawater sample matrices is demonstrated using both MEKC and CEC [37].
  • Polyps collected from corals and seawater were extracted with diethyl ether, and purified by alumina column and reversed-phase HPLC; testosterone and estradiol-17beta (E2) was measured by a validated RIA [38].
  • PCR was used to amplify DNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequences specifically from the cyanobacterial population in a seawater sample from the Sargasso Sea [39].


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