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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ribosomal S6 kinase-1 modulates interleukin-1beta-induced persistent activation of NF-{kappa}B through phosphorylation of I{kappa}Bbeta.

Activation of NF-kappaB requires the phosphorylation and degradation of its associated inhibitory proteins, IkappaB. Previously, we reported that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase ( ERK) is required for IL-1beta to induce persistent activation of NF-kappaB in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The present study examined the mechanism by which the ERK signaling cascade modulates the duration of NF-kappaB activation. In cultured rat VSMCs, IL-1beta activated ERK and induced degradation of both IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta, which was associated with nuclear translocation of both ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)1 and NF-kappaB p65. RSK1, a downstream kinase of ERK, was associated with an IkappaBbeta/NF-kappaB complex, which was independent of the phosphorylation status of RSK1. Treatment of VSMCs with IL-1beta decreased IkappaBbeta in the RSK1/IkappaBbeta/NF-kappaB complex, an effect that was attenuated by inhibition of ERK activation. Knockdown of RSK1 by small interference RNA attenuated the IL-1beta- induced IkappaBbeta decrease without influencing ether ERK phosphorylation or the earlier IkappaBalpha degradation. By using recombinant wild-type and mutant IkappaBbeta proteins, both active ERK2 and RSK1 were found to directly phosphorylate IkappaBbeta, but only active RSK1 phosphorylated IkappaBbeta on Ser19 and Ser23, two sites known to mediate the subsequent ubiquitination and degradation. In conclusion, in the ERK signaling cascade, RSK1 is a key component that directly phosphorylates IkappaBbeta and contributes to the persistent activation of NF-kappaB by IL-1beta.[1]


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