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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Molecular Control of Nuclear and Subnuclear Targeting of the Plant CDK Inhibitor ICK1 and ICK1- Mediated Nuclear Transport of CDKA.

ICK1 is the first member of a family of plant cyclin-dependent kinase ( CDK) inhibitors. It has been shown that ICK1 is localized in the nuclei of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Since cellular localization is important for the functions of cell cycle regulators, a comprehensive analysis was undertaken to identify specific sequences regulating the cellular localization of ICK1. Deletion and site-specific mutants fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used in transgenic Arabidopsis plants and transfected tobacco cells. Surprisingly, three separate sequences in the N-terminal, central and C-terminal regions of ICK1 could independently confer nuclear localization of the GFP fusion proteins. The central nuclear localization signal NLS(ICK1) could transport the much larger GUS (beta-glucuronidase)-GFP fusion protein into nuclei, while the other two sequences were unable to. These results suggest that NLS(ICK1) is a strong NLS that actively transports the fusion protein into nuclei, while the other two sequences are either a weaker NLS or confer the nuclear localization of GFP indirectly. It was further observed that the N-terminal sequence specifies a punctate pattern of subnuclear localization, while the C-terminal sequence suppresses it. Furthermore, co-expression of ICK1 and Arabidopsis CDKA, tagged with different GFP variants, showed that ICK1 could mediate the transport of CDKA into nuclei while a mutant ICK1(1-162) that does not interact with CDKA lost this ability. These results illustrate how the nuclear localization of ICK1 is regulated and also suggest a possible role of ICK1 in regulating the cellular distribution of CDKA.[1]


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