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Chemical Compound Review

citrate     2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3- tricarboxylic acid

Synonyms: Chemfill, Aciletten, Citralite, Citretten, Citraclean, ...
 
 
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Disease relevance of citric acid

 

Psychiatry related information on citric acid

 

High impact information on citric acid

  • We have identified an Enhancer-transposase-mediated Inhibitor element insertion responsible for the male sterile phenotype, and isolated the corresponding gene named MALE STERILITY 2 [9].
  • Critical evidence that the Inhibitor-element-containing gene is involved in the male sterile phenotype is provided by the DNA sequences of new excision-derived alleles from independent stable fertile and male sterile progeny of the original mutant [9].
  • Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Collaborative Group on ACE Inhibitor Trials [10].
  • Two states of the a1-m1 allele featuring different phenotypes in the absence as well as in the presence of Spm or En have been cloned and sequenced.. The insertion site and orientation of the Inhibitor (I) element within the two alleles is identical [11].
  • Early Onset of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressant Action: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis [12].
 

Chemical compound and disease context of citric acid

 

Biological context of citric acid

  • In many cell lineages, bHLH factors are sequestered by members of the Id family, HLH proteins that lack the basic DNA binding domain (Inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (Id-1 to Id-4)) [18].
  • The Inhibitor I amino acid sequence contains 71% identity with potato tuber Inhibitor I sequence and 35% identity with an inhibitor from the leech [19].
  • Deguelin, an Akt Inhibitor, Suppresses I{kappa}B{alpha} Kinase Activation Leading to Suppression of NF-{kappa}B-Regulated Gene Expression, Potentiation of Apoptosis, and Inhibition of Cellular Invasion [20].
  • In the accompanying paper (Fletcher, W.H., Van Patten, S.M., Cheng, H-C., and Walsh, D.A. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 5504-5513), we have described the use of a fluoresceinated derivative of catalytic subunit as a cytochemical probe to localize the Inhibitor Protein and the regulatory subunit of the protein kinase [21].
  • The Anaphase-promoting Complex/Cyclosome Inhibitor Emi2 Is Essential for Meiotic but Not Mitotic Cell Cycles [22].
 

Anatomical context of citric acid

 

Associations of citric acid with other chemical compounds

 

Gene context of citric acid

 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of citric acid

  • Ultraviolet difference spectra and near ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra at pH 8.0, between modified and unmodified Inhibitor I, revealed only minor absorption changes due to modification [38].
  • After conjugation, the fluoresceinated catalytic subunit (F:C), derivatized to a stoichiometry of approximately 1 mol/mol, retained near full activity as judged by specific activity and by titration against either regulatory subunit or Inhibitor Protein of the protein kinase [39].
  • I40 administration in vivo decreased and delayed clinical and neuropathological signs of adoptive transfer EAE [24].
  • Screening-based Discovery and Structural Dissection of a Novel Family 18 Chitinase Inhibitor [40].
  • Cost-efficacy in interventional cardiology; results from the EPISTENT study. Evaluation of Platelet IIb/IIIa Inhibitor For Stenting Trial [41].

References

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  10. Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Collaborative Group on ACE Inhibitor Trials. Garg, R., Yusuf, S. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Sequence comparison of 'states' of a1-m1 suggests a model of Spm (En) action. Schwarz-Sommer, Z., Gierl, A., Berndtgen, R., Saedler, H. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Early Onset of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressant Action: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Taylor, M.J., Freemantle, N., Geddes, J.R., Bhagwagar, Z. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Activator-bound C1 is less susceptible to inactivation by C1 inhibition than is fluid-phase C1. Tenner, A.J., Frank, M.M. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Airway Surface Liquid Volume Regulates ENaC by Altering the Serine Protease-Protease Inhibitor Balance: A MECHANISM FOR SODIUM HYPERABSORPTION IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS. Myerburg, M.M., Butterworth, M.B., McKenna, E.E., Peters, K.W., Frizzell, R.A., Kleyman, T.R., Pilewski, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Proteasome Inhibitor PS-341 Induces Apoptosis in Cisplatin-resistant Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Induction of Noxa. Fribley, A.M., Evenchik, B., Zeng, Q., Park, B.K., Guan, J.Y., Zhang, H., Hale, T.J., Soengas, M.S., Kaufman, R.J., Wang, C.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of bleeding in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation treated with ximelagatran or warfarin: assessment of incidence, case-fatality rate, time course and sites of bleeding, and risk factors for bleeding. Douketis, J.D., Arneklev, K., Goldhaber, S.Z., Spandorfer, J., Halperin, F., Horrow, J. Arch. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Synergistic Antitumor Activity of ZD6474, An Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling, with Gemcitabine and Ionizing Radiation against Pancreatic Cancer. Bianco, C., Giovannetti, E., Ciardiello, F., Mey, V., Nannizzi, S., Tortora, G., Troiani, T., Pasqualetti, F., Eckhardt, G., de Liguoro, M., Ricciardi, S., Del Tacca, M., Raben, D., Cionini, L., Danesi, R. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Id-2 regulates critical aspects of human cytotrophoblast differentiation, invasion and migration. Janatpour, M.J., McMaster, M.T., Genbacev, O., Zhou, Y., Dong, J., Cross, J.C., Israel, M.A., Fisher, S.J. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Wound-induced proteinase inhibitors from tomato leaves. I. The cDNA-deduced primary structure of pre-inhibitor I and its post-translational processing. Graham, J.S., Pearce, G., Merryweather, J., Titani, K., Ericsson, L., Ryan, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Deguelin, an Akt Inhibitor, Suppresses I{kappa}B{alpha} Kinase Activation Leading to Suppression of NF-{kappa}B-Regulated Gene Expression, Potentiation of Apoptosis, and Inhibition of Cellular Invasion. Nair, A.S., Shishodia, S., Ahn, K.S., Kunnumakkara, A.B., Sethi, G., Aggarwal, B.B. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. The inhibitor protein of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase-catalytic subunit interaction. Parameters of complex formation. Van Patten, S.M., Fletcher, W.H., Walsh, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. The Anaphase-promoting Complex/Cyclosome Inhibitor Emi2 Is Essential for Meiotic but Not Mitotic Cell Cycles. Liu, J., Grimison, B., Lewellyn, A.L., Maller, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Intravascular IL-8. Inhibitor of polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation at sites of acute inflammation. Hechtman, D.H., Cybulsky, M.I., Fuchs, H.J., Baker, J.B., Gimbrone, M.A. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Targeting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) suppresses autoimmune encephalomyelitis and up-regulates TGF-beta 1 secretion in vivo. Steinbrecher, A., Reinhold, D., Quigley, L., Gado, A., Tresser, N., Izikson, L., Born, I., Faust, J., Neubert, K., Martin, R., Ansorge, S., Brocke, S. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. An Inhibitor of the F1 subunit of ATP synthase (IF1) modulates the activity of angiostatin on the endothelial cell surface. Burwick, N.R., Wahl, M.L., Fang, J., Zhong, Z., Moser, T.L., Li, B., Capaldi, R.A., Kenan, D.J., Pizzo, S.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Existence of endogenous inhibitors of platelet-activating factor (PAF) with PAF in rat uterus. Nakayama, R., Yasuda, K., Saito, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Calcium signaling in excystation of the early diverging eukaryote, Giardia lamblia. Reiner, D.S., Hetsko, M.L., Meszaros, J.G., Sun, C.H., Morrison, H.G., Brunton, L.L., Gillin, F.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. K+ channel blockers inhibit tissue factor expression by human monocytic cells. Crutchley, D.J., Conanan, L.B., Que, B.G. Circ. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. In vitro and In vivo Activity of SKI-606, a Novel Src-Abl Inhibitor, against Imatinib-Resistant Bcr-Abl+ Neoplastic Cells. Puttini, M., Coluccia, A.M., Boschelli, F., Cleris, L., Marchesi, E., Donella-Deana, A., Ahmed, S., Redaelli, S., Piazza, R., Magistroni, V., Andreoni, F., Scapozza, L., Formelli, F., Gambacorti-Passerini, C. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Wound-induced proteinase inhibitors from tomato leaves. II. The cDNA-deduced primary structure of pre-inhibitor II. Graham, J.S., Pearce, G., Merryweather, J., Titani, K., Ericsson, L.H., Ryan, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. A Novel Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor Prevents Elastase Activation and Surface Cleavage of the Epithelial Sodium Channel Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes. Harris, M., Firsov, D., Vuagniaux, G., Stutts, M.J., Rossier, B.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Impact of Blood Pressure Control and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Therapy on New-Onset Microalbuminuria in Type 2 Diabetes: A Post Hoc Analysis of the BENEDICT Trial. Ruggenenti, P., Perna, A., Ganeva, M., Ene-Iordache, B., Remuzzi, G. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 is an interstitial collagenase. Inhibitor-free enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of collagen fibrils and soluble native type I collagen generating the specific 3/4- and 1/4-length fragments. Aimes, R.T., Quigley, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Characterization of the rat DNA fragmentation factor 35/Inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (Short form). The endogenous inhibitor of caspase-dependent DNA fragmentation in neuronal apoptosis. Chen, D., Stetler, R.A., Cao, G., Pei, W., O'Horo, C., Yin, X.M., Chen, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. The Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein Fusion c-IAP2{middle dot}MALT1 Stimulates NF-{kappa}B Activation Independently of TRAF1 AND TRAF2. Varfolomeev, E., Wayson, S.M., Dixit, V.M., Fairbrother, W.J., Vucic, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Liraglutide, a Long-Acting Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog, Reduces Body Weight and Food Intake in Obese Candy-Fed Rats, Whereas a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitor, Vildagliptin, Does Not. Raun, K., von Voss, P., Gotfredsen, C.F., Golozoubova, V., Rolin, B., Knudsen, L.B. Diabetes (2007) [Pubmed]
  37. Membrane-Bound CC Chemokine Inhibitor 35K Provides Localized Inhibition of CC Chemokine Activity In Vitro and In Vivo. Bursill, C.A., Cash, J.L., Channon, K.M., Greaves, D.R. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. Reduction and carboxamidomethylation of the single disulfide bond of proteinase inhibitor I from potato tubers. Effects on stability, immunological properties, and inhibitory activities. Plunkett, G., Ryan, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  39. Cytochemical identification of the regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase by use of fluorescently labeled catalytic subunit. Examination of protein kinase dissociation in hepatoma cells responding to 8-Br-cAMP stimulation. Fletcher, W.H., Van Patten, S.M., Cheng, H.C., Walsh, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  40. Screening-based Discovery and Structural Dissection of a Novel Family 18 Chitinase Inhibitor. Schüttelkopf, A.W., Andersen, O.A., Rao, F.V., Allwood, M., Lloyd, C., Eggleston, I.M., van Aalten, D.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
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