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Gene Review

ICK1  -  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of ICK1


High impact information on ICK1

  • Overexpression of D cyclins, KIP-related proteins, and E2F factors also affects root stem cell pool size, and genetic interactions suggest that these factors function in a canonical RBR pathway to regulate somatic stem cells [2].
  • Accordingly, a subset of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor genes (the KIP-related proteins) was induced in this mutant with a significant reduction in histone H4 gene expression and in CDK activity [3].
  • Novel functions of plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, ICK1/KRP1, can act non-cell-autonomously and inhibit entry into mitosis [4].
  • The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor KRP2 controls the onset of the endoreduplication cycle during Arabidopsis leaf development through inhibition of mitotic CDKA;1 kinase complexes [5].
  • Here, we investigated the function of the CDK inhibitor ICK1/KRP1 on cell growth and differentiation independent of any compensatory influence of an organ context using Arabidopsis trichomes as a model system [6].

Biological context of ICK1

  • Although the C-terminal domain of ICK1 contained an important consensus sequence with the mammalian CDK inhibitor p27Kip1, the remainder of the deduced ICK1 sequence showed little similarity to any known CDK inhibitors [7].
  • We show that ICK1/KRP1 exerts its function in the nucleus and its presence in the nucleus is controlled by multiple nuclear localization signals as well as by nuclear export [8].
  • These results demonstrate that ICK1 acts as a CDK inhibitor in the plant, and the inhibition of cell division by ICK1 expression has profound effects on plant growth and development [1].
  • Overexpression of CycD2 and CycD3 had the opposite effect on leaf cell size to the overexpression of ICK1 [9].
  • Since cellular localization is important for the functions of cell cycle regulators, a comprehensive analysis was undertaken to identify specific sequences regulating the cellular localization of ICK1 [10].

Associations of ICK1 with chemical compounds

  • In the present study we characterized ICK1 in terms of its gene structure, its interaction with both A. thaliana Cdc2a and CycD3, and its induction by the plant growth regulator, abscisic acid (ABA) [7].
  • However, ICK1 was induced by ABA, and along with ICK1 induction there was a decrease in Cdc2-like histone H1 kinase activity [7].
  • Improved growth of sto1 mutant plants on NaCl, but not sorbitol, medium was associated with a reduction in both NaCl-induced expression of the ICK1 gene and ethylene accumulation [11].

Other interactions of ICK1

  • Outside of this domain, ICK2 is distinct from ICK1, p27Kip1, and other proteins [12].
  • Transgenic AP3-ICK1 plants were morphologically normal except for some modified flowers either without petals or with petals of reduced size [13].
  • At G2/M, A-type and the unique B-type CDKs when bound to A, B and D cyclins, drive cells into division; they are negatively regulated by ICK1/2 and perhaps also by WEE1 kinase [14].


  1. Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology. Wang, H., Zhou, Y., Gilmer, S., Whitwill, S., Fowke, L.C. Plant J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. The RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED gene regulates stem cell maintenance in Arabidopsis roots. Wildwater, M., Campilho, A., Perez-Perez, J.M., Heidstra, R., Blilou, I., Korthout, H., Chatterjee, J., Mariconti, L., Gruissem, W., Scheres, B. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. A Membrane-Bound NAC Transcription Factor Regulates Cell Division in Arabidopsis. Kim, Y.S., Kim, S.G., Park, J.E., Park, H.Y., Lim, M.H., Chua, N.H., Park, C.M. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Novel functions of plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, ICK1/KRP1, can act non-cell-autonomously and inhibit entry into mitosis. Weinl, C., Marquardt, S., Kuijt, S.J., Nowack, M.K., Jakoby, M.J., Hülskamp, M., Schnittger, A. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor KRP2 controls the onset of the endoreduplication cycle during Arabidopsis leaf development through inhibition of mitotic CDKA;1 kinase complexes. Verkest, A., Manes, C.L., Vercruysse, S., Maes, S., Van Der Schueren, E., Beeckman, T., Genschik, P., Kuiper, M., Inzé, D., De Veylder, L. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Misexpression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1/KRP1 in single-celled Arabidopsis trichomes reduces endoreduplication and cell size and induces cell death. Schnittger, A., Weinl, C., Bouyer, D., Schöbinger, U., Hülskamp, M. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. ICK1, a cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor from Arabidopsis thaliana interacts with both Cdc2a and CycD3, and its expression is induced by abscisic acid. Wang, H., Qi, Q., Schorr, P., Cutler, A.J., Crosby, W.L., Fowke, L.C. Plant J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Analysis of the subcellular localization, function, and proteolytic control of the Arabidopsis cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1/KRP1. Jakoby, M.J., Weinl, C., Pusch, S., Kuijt, S.J., Merkle, T., Dissmeyer, N., Schnittger, A. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of co-expressing the plant CDK inhibitor ICK1 and D-type cyclin genes on plant growth, cell size and ploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana. Zhou, Y., Wang, H., Gilmer, S., Whitwill, S., Fowke, L.C. Planta (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular Control of Nuclear and Subnuclear Targeting of the Plant CDK Inhibitor ICK1 and ICK1-Mediated Nuclear Transport of CDKA. Zhou, Y., Niu, H., Brandizzi, F., Fowke, L.C., Wang, H. Plant Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Uncoupling the effects of abscisic acid on plant growth and water relations. Analysis of sto1/nced3, an abscisic acid-deficient but salt stress-tolerant mutant in Arabidopsis. Ruggiero, B., Koiwa, H., Manabe, Y., Quist, T.M., Inan, G., Saccardo, F., Joly, R.J., Hasegawa, P.M., Bressan, R.A., Maggio, A. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. The Arabidopsis Cdc2a-interacting protein ICK2 is structurally related to ICK1 and is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase activity in vitro. Lui, H., Wang, H., Delong, C., Fowke, L.C., Crosby, W.L., Fobert, P.R. Plant J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Control of petal and pollen development by the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 in transgenic Brassica plants. Zhou, Y., Wang, H., Gilmer, S., Whitwill, S., Keller, W., Fowke, L.C. Planta (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. The plant cell cycle - 15 years on. Francis, D. New Phytol. (2007) [Pubmed]
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