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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Neoplastic hepatocyte growth associated with cyclin D1 redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in mouse hepatocarcinogenesis.

Cyclin D1 overexpression is a frequent change in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Our present study demonstrated that cyclin D1 overexpression with abundant cyclin E, cdk4, cdk2, and p27(Kip1) (p27) occurred in neoplastic hepatocytes from the early stage of mouse hepatocarcinogenesis. While cyclin D1 expression was mainly found in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells, it shifted to the nucleus in association with cell proliferation after the animals were subjected to a partial hepatectomy (PH), and then returned once more to the cytoplasm when the cells became quiescent. Inhibition of PI3 kinase ( PI3K) by Ly294002 in mouse HCC cells in vitro suppressed the nuclear shift of cyclin D1 as well as cell proliferation, while PI3K activation by PTEN suppression failed to induce nuclear shift of cyclin D1, suggesting that PI3K activation is essential but not sufficient for the cyclin D1 nuclear shift. While MEK-ERK1/2 inhibition by PD98059 and mTOR inhibition by rapamycin affected the cyclin D1 nuclear shift and cell proliferation to a lesser extent, both these inhibitors reduced cyclin D1 levels. Finally, although p27, cdk4 and calmodulin (CaM) were detected in the cyclin D1 immunoprecipitates from both quiescent and proliferating HCC cells, Hsc70 and SSeCKS were detected only in the immunoprecipitate from quiescent cells, and p21(Waf1/Cip1) (p21) was detected only in that from proliferating cells, suggesting that the cyclin D1 complex is different in quiescent and proliferating cells. These observations indicate that the nuclear/cytoplasmic localization of cyclin D1 plays an important role in the proliferation/quiescence of neoplastic hepatocytes. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.[1]


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